A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Year of Publication:
Whitney Greene, Ellen S. Dierenfeld, Susan Mikota
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research
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Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas of nutritional requirements. This review seeks to present the current state of knowledge regarding the elephant gastrointestinal system and encourage research in those areas where information is questionable or lacking.


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