A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas […]

A Zoo Animal’s Neighbourhood: How Conspecific Neighbours Impact Welfare

While the zoological community strives to provide the best possible living environment for non-human animals, space limitations constrain where zoos can house particular species. Therefore, an individual may live in proximity to animals that impact its behaviour, physiology, reproductive function or overall welfare status. This article examines how solitary and social species living in managed […]

Effects of Environmental Enrichment for Mice: Variation in Experimental Results

This study focused on the effects of different enriched environments for mice in a number of behavioral and physiological parameters in 2 routine laboratory testing procedures: potency testing for tetanus vaccine and stress-induced hyperthermia. The variability in the results was studied by calculating and analyzing mean absolute devi-ations. Mice from enriched conditions weighed more and […]

Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation

Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses are increasingly being used by a variety of scientists (e.g., conservation biologists, animal scientists) to examine glucocorticoid (i.e., stress hormone) secretion in domestic and wild vertebrates. Adrenocortical activity (i.e., stress response) is of interest to conservation biologists because stress can alter animal behavior, reduce resistance to disease, and affect population performance. […]

Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare

Stereotypies, or stereotypic behaviours, are generally defined as unvarying, repetitive behaviour patterns that have no obvious goal or function. There are obvious examples, which include bar-biting of closely confined sows, wind sucking of stabled horses and repetitive pacing of certain zoo animals. However, many other less specific behaviour patterns can also be included. This book […]

Notes on the long-term transport of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10019.abs The capture and transport of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini Griffith and Smith, 1834) historically has represented a difficult, expensive, and uncertain undertaking for the public aquarium community. In this study, techniques were developed to improve the successful long-term transport of S. lewini by mitigating some of the deleterious effects associated with hyperactivity […]

Comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi-free ranging Hippotragini: Addax (Addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1005.abs Basic biomedical data from 164 neonates of four species of the tribe Hippotragini, addax (Addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), were compared at one zoological institution over a 9-year period. Measured biomedical parameters included body weight, temperature, pulse and respiratory rates, packed cell volume […]

Salivary cortisol assessment for stress detection in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): A pilot study

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430110408.abs Effects of introducing an unfamiliar female into an Asian elephant herd at Tierpark Berlin were monitored by means of salivary cortisol assessment. Saliva samples were obtained from a second female for comparative purposes. The period of familiarization was characterized by an enhanced cortisol level in both animals, with a maximum on the second […]

Stress in free-ranging mammals: integrating physiology, ecology, and natural history

We review developments in the study of stress in free-ranging mammals and summarize the physiological and behavioral components of the stress response. Both the sympathetic nervous system response and the regulation and reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis are discussed. In particular, we describe how the activity of the HPA axis at baseline levels follows […]

Manifestations of chronic and acute stress in dogs

Poor housing conditions, harsh training sessions and uncontrollable or unpredictable social environments are examples of the situations that may lead to reduced welfare status in dogs. Individuals that suffer from poor welfare presumably experience stress and may consequently exhibit stress responses. In order to evaluate stress responses as potential indicators of poor welfare in dogs, […]