A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas […]

Canine coprophagic behavior is influenced by coprophagic cohabitant

Coprophagia is a common canine habit, although it is aversive for human beings. Despite absence of clinical risk to animals and their owners, this behavior may lead the owners to get rid of their dogs. The lack of information and effective corrective methods make it difficult for veterinary clinicians to contribute to eradication of this […]

Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions

Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a […]

The Importance of Interactions Among Nutrition, Seasonality and Socio-sexual Factors in the Development of Hormone-free Methods for Controlling Fertility

Around the world, consumers are demanding animal products that are produced to agreed standards for human health, environmental management and animal welfare. This has led to the development in Australia of the concept of ‘clean, green and ethical’ (CGE) animal production based on the manipulation of nutrition (‘focus feeding’) and the application of phenomena, such […]

Tooth wear in captive wild ruminant species differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

The mesowear method evaluates the wear patterns of herbivore cheek teeth by visually evaluating the facet development of the occlusal surfaces. It thus allows classification of most herbivorous ungulates into browsers, grazers or intermediate feeders, due to the fact that in grazers, tooth wear is characterized by a comparatively high degree of abrasion, most probably […]

Proceedings of The Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research

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Zoo Animal Feeding: A Natural History Viewpoint

In order to formulate animal feeding programs, zoos traditionally borrow knowledge and techniques, developed for domesticated animals, from livestock industry. Although livestock industry provides some of the basic components of feeding it is aimed at economic gain from animals, and the number of species it covers is extremely small. Moreover, wild animals are forced to […]

Formulating Diets for Tamandua (T. tetradactyla) in Brazilian Zoos

Diet has long been suspected to be the primary cause of Tamanduas inability to thrive in some Brazilian zoos. It is known that free ranging animals consume diets consisting of termites and ants. Unfortunately, little is known about the nutrient requirements of insectivorous species. In addition, incomplete data exist on the nutrient content of many […]

Significance of color, calories, and climate to the visual ecology of catarrhines

Here we describe correlations among visual ecology and the physiochemical properties of fruits and leaves consumed by four species of catarrhine primate: Cercopithecus ascanius, Colobus guereza, Pan troglodytes, and Piliocolobus badius. Collectively, their diet was diverse, with each species relying on fruits and leaves to different extents. The mean chromaticity of both foods, as perceived […]

Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation

Abstract Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal’s requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an […]