A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas […]

Symposium on ”Indices to Measure Animal Well-Being” : Behavioral, Physiological and Functional Aspects of Stereotyped Behavior: A Review and a Re-Interpretation

Stereotypies are repetitive actions that are fixed in form and orientation and serve no obvious purpose. Their occurrence in farm animals submitted to intensive husbandry has been interpreted to indicate inadequate environmental design or welfare. Over recent years, detailed descriptive studies have led to a better urxderstanding of the organization and development of stereotypies, particularly […]