Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoological Park

The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation […]

A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas […]

Differences in husbandry and management systems across ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India

A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted to document the husbandry and management systems followed by ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India. Eighty-two Asian elephants at these ten facilities were surveyed between November 2004 and February 2005. A significantly greater percentage of the elephants managed by zoos (n54 zoos; 13 elephants surveyed) and […]

Elephant sociality and complexity: The scientific evidence


Some Preliminary Evidence of the Social Facilitation of Mounting Behavior in a Juvenile Bull Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)

This study recorded sexual behavior within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants for approximately 230 hr on 50 days over a period of 10 months. The study observed a single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times. When the juvenile bull was between 4 years, 2 months and 4 […]

Behavioural and endocrinological parameters of female African and Asian elephants

Reproduction of African elephants Loxodonta africana and Asian elephants Elephas maximus has in the past been poor in European zoos and juvenile survival has been low. A range of potential complications, such as stillbirths or maternal aggression towards the calf, makes it imperative that the date of parturition is predicted as accurately as possible. Behavioural, […]

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals: Elephants Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus


Why inter-country loans will not help sumatra’s elephants

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20090.abs Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in western zoos are likely to become extinct unless elephants are regrouped into breeding units or additional elephants are imported from range States. There have been proposals for the export of elephants from elephant camps in Sumatra, Indonesia. In exchange, zoos would be expected to provide funds or support […]

Long-term administration of α-tocopherol in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1024.abs After the loss of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in February 1989 at the Denver Zoological Gardens (DZG) with very low circulating serum α-tocopherol, a long-term study was initiated with three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to evaluate the effect of an oral micellized, water-soluble, natural source d-α-tocopherol supplement. Baseline α-tocopherol levels were evaluated […]

A Visual Health Assessment of Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) Housed in India

A visual health assessment and survey questionnaire was conducted on 81 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in 10 animal facilities throughout India between November 2004 and February 2005. The survey questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that evaluated the health of the elephants, and they were completed after visually assessing each individual elephant. The information collected […]