A review of Asian and African elephant gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas […]

A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20291.abs The foot health of elephants in human care is a longstanding concern. In 2001, the AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care were published recommending husbandry to improve foot health. This article reports the results of a 2006 survey: basic statistics describing facility, husbandry, and foot health attributes are reported and relationships among […]

Behaviour and welfare in relation to pathology

Behaviour is an important way of adapting to disease for individuals and selective pressures resulting from disease have had major consequences for the evolution of behaviour. Behaviour, adrenal and other physiological responses, immunological responses and brain activity all help in coping with disease. Health is an important part of welfare and any pathology implies some […]

Indoor husbandry of the panther chameleon Chamaeleo [Furcifer] pardalis: Effects of dietary vitamins A and D and ultraviolet irradiation on pathology and life-history traits

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:33.3.CO;2-T To assess the importance of diet and light for indoor maintenance, hatchling panther chameleons were reared for 1 year on crickets fed diets that differed in vitamin concentrations and in different light environments. Dietary transfer of vitamins from the cricket diet to the lizards via the crickets was quantified, as was UV irradiance. […]

Extrinsic factors significantly affect patterns of disease in free-ranging and captive cheetah populations.

The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm for disease vulnerability due to loss of genetic diversity. This species onomorphism has been suspected to be the basis for their general poor health and dwindling populations in captivity. North American and South African captive populations have high prevalences of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, gastritis, and […]

A scoring system to evaluate physical condition and quality of life in geriatric zoo mammals

The decision to perform euthanasia in geriatric zoo mammals is usually a highly complex procedure involving ethical, medical, emotional and sometimes political factors. However, subsequent necropsies show that the pathological changes of organs and/or the musculoskeletal system are often already advanced. Therefore, we hypothesise that euthanasia is often delayed to the detriment of the animal’s […]

Relationships between pathology and pain severities: a review

The relationships between pathology severity and pain severity are reviewed using the literature available for humans. The aim is to help veterinary radiologists, physicians and pathologists recognise the disorders in which severity of a lesion is likely to be related to the severity of pain or to incipient pain. Specific features or lesions within the […]

Positive psychology-an introduction

A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features […]

Nutrition and health in amphibian husbandry

Amphibian biology is intricate, and there are many inter-related factors that need to be understood before establishing successful Conservation Breeding Programs (CBPs). Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and […]

Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition

The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney’s Animal Kingdom Workshop on “Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition,” identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop […]