Brown skin disease: A syndrome of dysecdysis in puerto rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur)

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Year of Publication:
Graham Crawshaw, Maria Pienkowski, Andrew Lentini, Christopher Dutton, Pauline Delnatte, Deanna Russell, Charlene Berkvens, Ian Barker, Dale Smith
Zoo Biology
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The endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been held and bred in zoos for release into protected areas in Puerto Rico since 1982. In 2004, several cases of a novel syndrome of skin changes in toads were noticed at the Toronto Zoo. A total of 21 toads were found to have similar lesions and the condition has been seen in several other groups of toads in subsequent years. Affected toads show an uncharacteristic sheen of dark-brown leathery skin, followed by recurring dysecdysis, reduced appetite, weight loss, and death from secondary causes. Histologically the condition is characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, ulceration, and the presence of superficial mats of bacterial and fungal agents. No etiology has been identified and to date toads have not permanently responded to treatment with various pharmaceutical and nutritional therapies. Zoo Biol. 33:558–564, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.


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