Aggression in working mules and subsequent aggressive treatment by their handlers in Egyptian brick kilns—Cause or effect?

Mules found working in Egyptian brick kilns are often faced with poor welfare from being over worked, overloaded, having multiple lesions from ill-fitted harnesses, poor body scores, and receiving aversive treatment by handlers. Reports have frequently revealed aggressive responses by mules toward their handlers. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether mule […]

A welfare assessment scoring system for working equids—A method for identifying at risk populations and for monitoring progress of welfare enhancement strategies (trialed in Egypt)

There are an estimated 112 million horses, donkeys and mules (i.e., working equids) in developing regions of the world. Though their roles are often fundamental to the well-being of the families they work for, their welfare is often severely compromised due to the limited resources and/or limited knowledge base of owners. The main objective of […]