Evaluation of UVB reduction by materials commonly used in reptile husbandry

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20148.abs Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (285–320 nm) is considered important for metabolic processes and reproduction in many reptile species by facilitating the synthesis of vitamin D3. In captivity, UVB radiation reaching an animal may be diminished by the properties of the materials used in enclosure construction. We investigated the UVB-attenuating properties of 14 materials commonly […]

A comparison of responses by three broadband radiometers to different ultraviolet-B sources

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20014.abs Three types of broadband ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiometers were shown to display different irradiances from the same light source. Also, natural light and different lamp types were shown to have different vitamin D–synthesizing potential. Equations relating the irradiance readings from UVB radiometers from Gigahertz-Optik Inc., UVP Inc., and Spectronics Corp. to in vitro vitamin […]

Vitamin D content in Alaskan Arctic zooplankton, fishes, and marine mammals

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10104.abs We postulated that dietary ingestion of vitamin D may be used by some Alaskan Arctic marine mammal species in addition to, or instead of, cutaneous production to meet nutritional requirements. Zooplankton (n=5) sampled near Kaktovik, Alaska, contained no measurable vitamin D2 or D3, but did contain provitamin D (7-dehydrocholesterol), the cutaneous precursor for […]

Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and response to bPTH (1-34) in blue duikers

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10016.abs In a colony of blue duiker antelope (Cephalophus monticola bicolor) at Pennsylvania State University, many animals had reversed Ca:P ratios and acid-base imbalance, and some developed urinary calculi. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between age, dietary Ca, P, and the homeostatic mechanisms controlling their extracellular fluid levels. Sixteen […]

Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamins A and E, vitamin D metabolites, and carotenoids in nine primate species at four zoos

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:63.3.CO;2-J The purpose of this work was to measure important nutritional status parameters for captive primates, compare those with published data, and look for a link with diet. The nutritional status of nine captive primate species was examined using biochemical analysis. The species were spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza), sooty mangabeys […]

Vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and kidney function indices and the relationship to diet in Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:63.3.CO;2-3 In Brookfield Zoo’s Goeldi’s monkey colony, a large number of deaths related to renal disease has been documented. Review of post-mortem results from Goeldi’s monkeys in the past 20 years revealed that in deaths of animals over 18 months of age, renal disease was a primary pathologic diagnosis. Although the nutrient requirements of […]

Determination of vitamins D, A, and E in sera and vitamin D in milk from captive and free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in skin from captive polar bears

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:43.3.CO;2-4 The difference between serum levels from 36 captive and 56 free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) was found not to be significant (mean ± SD = 348 ± 215 nmol/L [captive], 360 ± 135 nmol/L [free-ranging], t = 0.30, df = 52.8, P = 0.76), whereas the difference for retinol […]

Indoor husbandry of the panther chameleon Chamaeleo [Furcifer] pardalis: Effects of dietary vitamins A and D and ultraviolet irradiation on pathology and life-history traits

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:33.3.CO;2-T To assess the importance of diet and light for indoor maintenance, hatchling panther chameleons were reared for 1 year on crickets fed diets that differed in vitamin concentrations and in different light environments. Dietary transfer of vitamins from the cricket diet to the lizards via the crickets was quantified, as was UV irradiance. […]

Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as a model for captive rearing milk formula

The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), protein, and amino acids. Total lipids in milk did not […]

Provision of ultraviolet basking lights to indoor housed tropical birds and their effect on suspected vitamin D3 deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency (measured as 25(OH)D 3 ) can occur if birds are fed a vitamin D deficient diet and do not have access to ultraviolet B light (UVB). This can result in eggs with deficient yolks and consequent metabolic bone disease (MBD) in chicks. In this study, hypovitaminosis D was suspected in 31 adult […]