Feeding Enrichment in a Captive Pack of European Wolves (Canis Lupus Lupus): Assessing the Effects on Welfare and on a Zoo’s Recreational, Educational and Conservational Role

This study investigated the effects of two feeding enrichment programs on the behaviour of a captive pack of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus) and their correlation with both zoo visitors’ interest towards the exhibit and their overall perception of the species. Behavioural data (exploration, stereotypies, social interactions, activity/inactivity rates) were collected on four male wolves […]

A review of injuries caused by elephants in captivity: an examination of predominant factors

Injuries to people caused by elephants in zoos can be lethal. Data on incidents of injury to keepers and visitors were collated from newspaper articles, personal communications with zoo directors and keepers, and published information from the European Elephant Group. Although the data were not of consistent quality and detail across the three sources, the […]

Visitor Circulation and Nonhuman Animal Welfare: An Overlooked Variable?

This article investigates visitor circulation and behaviors within a gallery of primate exhibits in relation to their possible implications for nonhuman animal welfare. When entering a primate house, the majority of visitors (84%) turned right, a pattern upheld throughout all times of the day. These findings demonstrate the existence of the “right-turn” principle, a concept […]

Visitor behavior in zoos: A review

Visitors are integral components of zoological parks and their importance has led to a research area devoted to understanding the people-zoo relationship. This paper reviews, and provides a point of entry into, the literature relating to visitor research in zoos. The field emerged relatively recently and is diverse and interdisciplinary (it shares common ground with […]

Relationships between exhibit naturalism, animal visibility and visitor interest in a Chinese Zoo

Efforts to meet the welfare needs of captive animals (such as the provision of environmental enrichment and naturalistic furnishings) often compromise visitors’ needs (naturalistic exhibits often decrease the visibility of animals on display even though visitors pay to view them). The literature offers different predictions about how zoo visitors respond to decreased animal visibility in […]

Enhancing the zoo visitor’s experience by public animal training and oral interpretation at an otter exhibit

This study investigated the effects of performing animal-training sessions with Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) while zoo visitors watched. The effects of having an interpreter present to describe the otters and their training on zoo visitors were also assessed. The data from 389 visitors to Zoo Atlanta’s otter exhibit were analyzed, and exhibit stay times […]

The global reach of zoos and aquariums in visitor numbers and conservation expenditures

A survey conducted by the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, in collaboration with national and regional zoo and aquarium associations, showed that annually more than 700 million people visit zoos and aquariums worldwide and are thus potentially exposed to environmental education. Furthermore, the world zoo and aquarium community reportedly spends about US$350 million on wildlife conservation […]

Promoting Nonhuman Animal Welfare: Interactions With Caregivers and Zoo Visitors