Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): The effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item

The authors examined quantity-based judgments for up to 10 items for simultaneous and sequential whole sets as well as for sequentially dropped items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). In Experiment 1, subjects had to choose the larger of 2 quantities presented in 2 separate dishes either […]

Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Categorize Unknown Conspecifics According to Their Dominance Relations

The authors trained 3 adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to categorize pairs of unknown conspecifics presented in a video according to the dominance status of the videotaped monkeys. The subjects were trained to choose the dominant monkey for a category of films (e.g., films showing 1 monkey chasing another); then, new films were presented […]

Recognizing Impossible Object Relations: Intuitions About Support in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Using looking-time measures, the authors examined untrained chimpanzees’ (Pan troglodytes) ability to distinguish between adequate and inadequate support. In 3 experiments, the chimpanzees’ sensitivity to different support relations between 2 objects was assessed. In each experiment, the chimpanzees saw a possible and an impossible test event, presented as digital video clips. Looking times in the […]

“Right-Trunkers” and “Left-Trunkers”: Side Preferences of Trunk Movements in Wild Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

In this article, the side preferences of feeding-related trunk movements of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were investigated for the first time. It is hypothesized that a functional asymmetry of the trunk is necessary to perform skillful feeding movements more efficiently. This might be connected with a corresponding hemispheric specialization. Video recordings of 41 wild […]

Referential Understanding of Videos in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and Children (Homo sapiens)

Performance on identical search tasks based on cues directly perceived or indirectly perceived through video were compared among a group of 4 adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a group of 2 adult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and a group of 36 children (between 2 and 3 years of age). Children comprehended directly perceived cues but had difficulty […]