Urinary oxytocin as a noninvasive biomarker of positive emotion in dogs

A reliable assay based on physiological parameters that does not require subjective input from the owners is required to assess positive emotions in dogs. In addition, when viewed from an animal welfare perspective, physiological parameters should be collected in a noninvasive manner. Oxytocin (OT) is a biomarker that may be associated with a calm, relaxed […]