Urinary Steroid Evaluations to Monitor Ovarian Function in Exotic Ungulates: I. Pregnanediol-3-GIucuronide lmmunoreactivity in the Okapi (Okapia johnstoni)

Immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide was assessed in daily urine samples from five female okapis. Indexed by creatinine (CR), the resultant profiles accurately reflect ovulation and pregnancy in this species. The infertile cycle was approximately 14.5 days by this method with the preovulatory levels averaging less than 1 ng/mg CR (N = 88) for approximately eight days (N […]

Hand-rearing Hoofstock: a Team Approach

There are many reasons for hand-rearing neonatal hoofstock in captivity. From 1989 until 1992 the Fort Worth Zoo had no male springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) or dama gazelles (Gazella dama). In 1993, when males were added to these herds, offspring began to be produced. Calves were rejected by first time mothers who had also been hand-reared, […]

Use of melengestrol acetate in feed for contraception in herds of captive ungulates

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10096.abs Herds of blackbuck antelope (Antilopa cervicapra) and barasingha (Cervus duvauceli), axis (Cervus axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), and Formosan sika (Cervus nippon taiwanaus) deer at the Wildlife Conservation Society/Bronx Zoo (WCS/BZ) were fed melengestrol acetate (MGA) at a concentration of 0.000154% in pelleted feed for various periods of times during 1991–2001. The target dose […]

Food access in captive Ammotragus: the role played by hierarchy and mother–infant interactions

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10062.abs An analysis of individuals’ behavior when accessing a restricted food source (troughs) was carried out in a captive population of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Access to the troughs followed a strict hierarchical order, as higher-ranking individuals fed before lower-ranking ones. Unweaned male and female calves made use of the troughs from the ages of […]

Multi-male captive groups of endangered dama gazelle: Social rank, aggression, and enclosure effects

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:23.3.CO;2-T A study carried out in four multi-male groups of captive dama gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) characterized the social rank order of males and possible enclosure effects on aggression rate. A strong relationship between rank and age was found. The results also showed that dominant individuals in the two smallest enclosures were more aggressive […]

Tapir (Tapirus) enteroliths

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:53.3.CO;2-U Enterolith fragments from two tapir species and horses were subjected to x-ray diffraction analysis. Tapir enteroliths were formed as layers of mineral deposited around a foreign nidus. The structure was similar to that of equine enteroliths except that tapir enteroliths lacked a central region of radially symmetrical coarse crystals. The enteroliths from tapirs […]

Immunocontraception of captive exotic species. I. Przewalski’s horses (Equus przewalskii) and banteng (Bos javanicus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430140503.abs A contraceptive vaccine made of porcine zonae pellucidae (PZP) was tested in three Przewalski’s mares and five banteng cows. The vaccine antigen consisted of the complete family of glycoproteins of the porcine zona pellucida, including the sperm receptor ZP3. All mares and three of five banteng were inoculated with 2 or 3 i.m. […]

Nursing behavior in dam-reared Russian saiga (Saiga tatarica tatarica) at the San Diego wild animal park

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430130404.abs This study was designed to examine the nursing patterns and related behavior of young saiga raised by their dams. Four captive born lambs were observed at weekly intervals during continuous 14 h watches for the first 7 weeks of life. One-week-old lambs were found to nurse at an average rate of 1.1 bouts […]

Use of space and activity budgets in relation to age and social status in a captive herd of American bison, Bison bison

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430120407.abs A stable herd of 11 captive American bison (Bison bison) of known ages and social rank was studied between June 18 and August 6, 1979 at the Jardin zoologique du Québec, Charlesbourg, Quebec. During the 8-week study, the first author collected scan data of predefined behaviors and locations on all individuals of the […]

Aggressive behavior and dominance hierarchies in female sable antelope, Hippotragus niger: Implications for captive management

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430120205.abs Social interactions of adult female sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, were observed at the National Zoological Park’s Conservation and Research Center. Aggressive behavior was quantified for two herds containing 8 and 11 females. Aggression was lowest at calving, and highest near the time of conception. Dominance hierarchies were strictly linear and stable over time. […]