Comparative endocrinology of cycling and non-cycling Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants

Up to 14% of Asian and 29% of African elephants in captivity are not cycling normally or exhibit irregular cycles based on progestin profiles. To determine if ovarian acyclicity is related to other disruptions in endocrine activity, serum pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and ovarian hormones in weekly samples collected for 6–25 months were compared between normal […]

Do Audible and Ultrasonic Sounds of Intensities Common in Animal Facilities Affect the Autonomic Nervous System of Rodents?

In animal facilities, noises, often poorly controlled, occur over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. Evidence demonstrates that audible noise and ultrasound have deleterious effects on rodent physiology, but it is not known how they affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study exposed 3 unrestrained, male, Sprague-Dawley rats daily to a 15-min white […]

Results of a second survey to assess the reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in North America

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20238.abs Surveys are being conducted to monitor the reproductive health of elephants managed by the TAG/SSP. This study summarizes results of a 2005 survey and compares data to one conducted in 2002. Surveys were returned for 100% and 79.0% of Asian and African elephants, respectively. Of those, 79.3% of Asian and 92.1% of African […]

Assessment of reproductive status and ovulation in female brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) using fecal steroids and ovarian follicle size

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20074.abs Despite being listed as endangered on the IUCN (World Conservation Union) red list [BirdLife International 2005], and intense conservation efforts on its behalf, little is known about the reproductive physiology of the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). This study therefore was undertaken to describe ovarian function in brown kiwi using noninvasive methods that can […]

Pregnancy detection and fetal monitoring via ultrasound in a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20022.abs Transabdominal ultrasound was used to monitor the reproductive tract of a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) for three consecutive breeding seasons starting in 2001. Parturition did not occur in 2001 or 2002. In 2003, uterine enlargement was noted 109 days after natural mating occurred. A twin pregnancy was detected via transabdominal ultrasound 134 […]

Survey of the reproductive cyclicity status of Asian and African elephants in North America

The Asian and African elephant populations in North America are not self-sustaining, and reproductive rates remain low. One problem identified from routine progestagen analyses is that some elephant females do not exhibit normal ovarian cycles. To better understand the extent of this problem, the Elephant TAG/SSP conducted a survey to determine the reproductive status of […]

Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park

For decades, attempts to breed elephants using artificial insemination (AI) have failed despite considerable efforts and the use of various approaches. However, recent advances in equipment technology and endocrine-monitoring techniques have resulted in 12 elephants conceiving by AI within a 4-year period (1998–2002). The successful AI technique employs a unique endoscope-guided catheter and transrectal ultrasound […]

Comparison of noninvasive methods for the evaluation of female reproductive condition in a large viviparous lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10017.abs We compared the diagnostic value of three noninvasive methods (radiography, ultrasound, and palpation) of evaluating reproductive status in females of a large viviparous skink, the blotched blue-tongued lizard (Tiliqua nigrolutea). Radiography could be used to identify postovulatory females during the periovulatory period. However, in early to mid-gestation, radiography did not allow differentiation of […]

Ultrasonography of the estrous cycle in female African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:53.3.CO;2-B The endocrinology of the elephant estrous cycle has been well characterized, but little emphasis has been placed on evaluating corresponding changes in the reproductive tract. Ultrasound was used to document changes in reproductive tract morphology throughout the estrous cycle in four cycling female African elephants. During a 7-month period, frequent ultrasound examinations (n […]

Combined serial ultrasonography and fecal progestin analysis for reproductive evaluation of the female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum): Preliminary results

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:53.3.CO;2-S Ultrasonographic examinations of one multiparous 33-year-old female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) resulted in documentation of the animal’s estrous cycle, elucidation of the timing of ovulation in relation to estrus, and ultrasonographic evidence of endometritis and associated early embryonic death. The preovulatory follicle was observed to change in shape from spherical to […]