Elephants in circuses: Analysis of practice, policy, and future
Rats exposed to traumatic stress bury unfamiliar objects — A novel measure of hyper-vigilance in PTSD models?
Abstract Electric shocks lead to lasting behavioral deficits in rodents, and as such are often used to model post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the laboratory. Here we show that a single exposure of rats to 3 mA-strong shocks results in a marked social avoidance that lasts at least 28 days; moreover, the response intensifies over […]
Pain in Birds
For the detection and assessment of pain in animals both behavioural and physiological measurements are necessary. Cutaneous receptors which responded to noxious stimulation (nociceptors) have been identified in birds and have been characterized physiologically in the chicken. Following cutaneous nociceptive stimulation the chicken showed cardiovascular and characteristic behavioural changes consistent with those seen in mammals […]