Elephants in circuses: Analysis of practice, policy, and future


The behavior of circus tigers during transport

The behavior of two tigers (Panthera tigris) individually caged and transported once for 4.25 h and the behavior of four tigers that were transported twice for 4.2 and 4.5 h while caged as a group was analyzed. The tigers were videotaped during transport and the amount of time spent pacing, lying, and standing and walking […]

The effects of land transport on animal welfare

Animal welfare during and as a result of transport can be assessed by using a range of behavioural, physiological, pathological and carcass-quality indicators that are described in this paper. Measures of the extent of any disease, injury or mortality resulting from, or exacerbated by, transport are important because health is an important part of welfare. […]

Prediction, location, collection and transport of jellyfish (Cnidaria) and their polyps

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20218.abs With growing interest in research and display of living jellyfish workers are realizing the difficulty in obtaining and maintaining a healthy collection consistently. This report identifies the causes for the uncertainty in locating specimens and summarizes the latest technology, techniques and avenues for acquiring jellyfish for captive maintenance. Responsibility inherent with jellyfish transport […]

Effect of crate height during short-term confinement on the welfare and behaviour of turkeys

During transport from the farm to the slaughter house birds are often confined in crates with limited space. In this study we investigated how the confinement of male turkeys in crates of 40, 55 or 90 cm height for 6 h, affected the turkeys welfare. We used both behavioural observations and physiological measures and the study was […]

Transportation of beef cattle to slaughterhouses and how this relates to animal welfare and carcase bruising in an extensive production system

The objective of this study was to evaluate conditions during transport and their effects on welfare and carcase bruising of beef cattle in Uruguay, a country with an extensive, pasture-based, production system. Twelve abattoirs were visited periodically during two years (2002-2003) and 448 trucks were inspected on arrival. The state of vehicle maintenance was deemed […]

Frequency of dehydration and metabolic depletion in cattle and water buffalo transported from India to a livestock market in Bangladesh

The effects of presumed long distance transport on blood parameters were examined in cattle and water buffalo exported from India to Bangladesh. The aim was to assess the welfare of the animals in terms of the frequency of dehydration, metabolic depletion and muscle injury or activation, when they reached their destination. The physiological indicators were […]

The aversion of broiler chickens to concurrent vibrational and thermal stressors

The requirement for assessing the effects of multiple concurrent stressors in improving the welfare of broiler chickens during transport has not been widely recognised. A discrete-choice technique was used to investigate the aversion of broiler chickens to concurrent vibrational and thermal transport stressors. In experiment 1, 12 female broiler chickens, aged 42+/-3 days were studied […]

Glucocorticoid metabolites in rabbit faeces–Influence of environmental enrichment and cage size

The concentration of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in rabbit faeces has been suggested as a non-invasive indicator of stress. In the present study, GCM concentrations were measured in faeces of fattening rabbits kept in groups of eight, at seven different stocking densities (between 5 and 20 animals/m2), with or without environmental enrichment (a wooden structure used mainly […]

Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation […]