Rat pup social motivation: A critical component of early psychological development

Examining the role of the offspring in early social dynamics is especially difficult. Human developmental psychology has found infant behavior to be a vital part of the early environmental setting. In the rodent model, the different ways that a rodent neonate or pup can influence social dynamics are not well known. Typically, litters of neonates […]

The Three Rs in the pharmaceutical industry: perspectives of scientists and regulators

Six drug regulatory reviewers and 11 pharmaceutical industry scientists were interviewed to explore their perspectives on the obstacles and opportunities for greater implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) in drug research and development. Participants generally supported the current level of animal use in the pharmaceutical industry and viewed in vitro methods as supporting, […]

Refining dosing by oral gavage in the dog: A protocol to harmonise welfare

AbstractIntroduction The dog is a frequently-used, non-rodent species in the safety assessment of new chemical entities. We have a scientific and ethical obligation to ensure that the best quality of data is achieved from their use. Oral gavage is a technique frequently used to deliver a compound directly into the stomach. As with other animals, […]

Evaluation of perlite, wood shavings and corncobs for bedding material in rats

Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 […]