Investigating fear in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the conditioned-suppression paradigm
Trout learned the operant task of pendulum-pressing for a food-reward in a mean of 4.3 sessions lasting 1 hr. In a separate phase, fish also learned–through classical conditioning–to associate a neutral light cue with an aversive stimulus. When again allowed to pendulum-press for food, after aversive classical conditioning, there was a drop in the rate […]
Spatial memory for food hidden by rats (Rattus norvegicus) on the radial maze: Studies of memory for where, what, and when
Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were allowed to hide food items on an 8-arm radial maze by carrying the items from the center to boxes at the end of each arm. Retrieval tests given after rats had hidden 4 items showed that they selectively returned to the maze arms where food had been hidden (Experiments 1 and […]
On the Way to Assess Emotions in Animals: Do Lambs (Ovis aries) Evaluate an Event Through Its Suddenness, Novelty, or Unpredictability?
Appraisal theories provide a framework that gives insight into emotions and could allow comparisons across species. According to these theories, events are first evaluated on their suddenness, novelty, and unpredictability. The authors examined the ability of lambs (Ovis aries) to evaluate an event according to these 3 criteria through 3 tests. The lambs responded to […]
Responses of White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus) to Naturalistic and Experimentally Presented Food-Associated Calls
In the context of foraging, many animal species produce specific calls that attract others. Researchers hypothesize that these vocalizations function to inform others about food; however, few studies have investigated whether food-associated calls alone are sufficient to cause individuals to respond as if they have been informed about food. Playback experiments on white-faced capuchins (Cebus […]
Sex-Specific Differences in Olfactory Sensitivity for Putative Human Pheromones in Nonhuman Primates
In humans, the volatile C19-steroids androsta-4,16-dien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) have been shown to modulate autonomic nervous system responses, and to cause hypothalamic activation in a gender-specific manner. Using two conditioning paradigms, the authors here show that pigtail macaques and squirrel monkeys of both sexes were able to detect AND and EST at concentrations in […]
Grooming and yawning trace adjustment to unfamiliar environments in laboratory Sprague-Dawley rats ( Rattus norvegicus)
The authors studied grooming and yawning caused by mild stress in laboratory Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus). Two groups received 3 and 6 sequences of 5 foot shocks at random intervals (RI) and fixed intervals (FI), respectively. A 3rd group was not shocked (NS). The groups were exposed for 60 min twice. Grooming did not differ […]
Behavioral and Emotional Response of Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata) Mothers After Their Offspring Receive an Aggression
The authors of this study investigated the behavioral and emotional response of female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) to an aggression received by their offspring to evaluate the existence of cognitive empathic responses in a naturalistic setting. After their offspring received an aggression, mothers did not direct increased affiliative contacts to them. The factors likely to […]
Parental Care and the Prolactin Secretion Pattern in the King Penguin: An Endogenously Timed Mechanism?
The King penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) has been studied on Possession Island, Crozet Archipelago (46*25’S-51*45’E). It is an offshore feeder, but it breeds on land. Its breeding cycle is unusually long (about 14 months). It starts at the beginning of spring, is interrupted during 5 months of winter, and ends in the next spring. […]