Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoological Park

The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation […]

Coat Clipping of Horses: A Survey

Coat clipping is a common practice in sport horses; however, timing, purpose, technique, and clips vary widely, as do the management and feeding of a clipped horse. The aim of this study was to collect data regarding common clipping practices. A questionnaire was published online in Germany and contained 32 questions. Four hundred ninety-eight people […]

Lizards perceived abiotic and biotic stressors independently when competing for shade in terrestrial mesocosms

Hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgens enable animals to respond adaptively to environmental stressors. For this reason, circulating glucocorticoids became a popular biomarker for estimating the quality of an environment, and circulating androgens are frequently used to indicate social dominance. Here, we show that access to thermal resources influence the hormones and behavior of male […]

Effects of a light-colored cotton rug use on horse thermoregulation and behavior indicators of stress

When environmental temperatures exceed 25°C, horses are potentially subjected to thermal stress. It has therefore been recommended that horses should be provided with shade during hot days. However, this is not possible for horses grazing on many Australian rural properties. Although the positive effect that solar radiation blocking can have on reducing heat absorption is […]

The influence of thermoregulatory demand on contact crèching behaviour in Adélie Penguin chicks

(1) We tested the hypothesis that contact behaviour in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks of crèching age is strongly influenced by thermoregulatory demand. (2) Estimated thermoregulatory costs (% minimal metabolic rate) for early crèche stage (1 kg) chicks were much higher (13.4–121.0%) than for late crèche (3 kg) chicks (0–45.1%). The incidence of contact behaviour […]

Thermoregulation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

Four young adult elephant bulls aged 21-23 in the Letsatsing Game Reserve, a private reserve near Pilanesbury NP in South Africa, were the subjects of this study focused on body temperature. The elephant were trained to carry people were engaged in short term daily programmes for tourist or public education groups and normally spend the […]

Body temperature and thermoregulation of Komodo dragons in the field

Komodo dragons from hatchlings (≈0.1 kg) to adults (≤80 kg) express the full magnitude of varanid species size distributions. We found that all size groups of dragons regulated a similar preferred body temperature by exploiting a heterogeneous thermal environment within savanna, forest and mangrove habitats. All dragons studied, regardless of size, were able to regulate […]

Surface temperature patterns in seals and sea lions: A validation of temporal and spatial consistency

We assessed infrared thermography (IRT) as a tool for evaluating spatial and temporal surface temperature patterns in juvenile female harbor seals (Phoca vitulina, n=6) and adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, n=2). Following a technical assessment of the influence of environmental parameters on the specific camera to be used, we identified regional and seasonal […]

Why do vultures have bald heads? The role of postural adjustment and bare skin areas in thermoregulation

Griffon vultures (Genus Gyps) have large areas of bare skin on their body, and by changing their posture they can vary the extent to which these are covered by feathers. We used a mathematical model to estimate the amount of bare skin exposed in the postures adopted in cold and hot conditions. Measurements of heat […]

Cetacean sleep: An unusual form of mammalian sleep

Our knowledge of the form of lateralized sleep behavior, known as unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS), seen in all members of the order Cetacea examined to date, is described. We trace the discovery of this phenotypically unusual form of mammalian sleep and highlight specific aspects that are different from sleep in terrestrialmammals.Wefind that for cetaceans […]