The effect of positive or negative handling on the behavioural and physiological responses of nonlactating heifers

This experiment investigated the effects of positive and negative tactile handling on the stress physiology and behaviour of dairy heifers. Forty-eight 5–14-month-old nonlactating Holstein–Friesian heifers were allocated to one of two handling treatments, either positive or negative tactile handling, over four time replicates. Handlingwas imposed twice daily, 2–5 min per session and involved moving animals […]

Life in a variable world: Behaviour, welfare and environmental design

Many or most stimuli in the environment are variable. Sometimes animals will categorize this variation, and we tend to underestimate the complexity of the mechanisms involved. Probably more often, response to variable stimuli is itself variable. Examples are explored in four areas, including the possibility that stimuli may occur in supernormal form: nest-site selection by […]