Stereotypic Behavior of a Female Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo

This study recorded daytime behavior of a female Asiatic elephant at the Municipal Zoo, Wroclaw, Poland, in both an indoor pen and an outdoor paddock as continuous scan sampling for 140 hr, over 35 days in 1 year. Stereotypic sequences involved bouts of highly repetitive stereotypic movements and much more variable interbout behavior. The study […]

Low environmental temperature causes an increase in stereotypic behaviour in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

(1) Captive Asian elephants exhibited a strong negative correlation between maximum daily temperature and the frequency of stereotypic behaviour, in those animals predisposed to exhibit stereotypies. (2) The frequency of stereotypic behaviours increased throughout each study day (1000–1400 h), reaching maximum values at the end of the day, asfeeding time approached. (3) The frequenciesof stereotypic […]

Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants’ routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more stereotyped swaying had lower mean serum cortisol concentrations. Behavioural data were collected during hour-long observations […]

Environmental effects on the behavior of zoo-housed lions and tigers, with a case study of the effects of a visual barrier on pacing

Tigers and lions in the wild are nocturnal nonhuman animals who may hunt and mate opportunistically during daylight hours. In captivity, they spend most time on exhibit sleeping or pacing. To better understand their activity budget, this study examined the daily behavior patterns of 2 Sumatran tigers and 3 African lions in different housings. The […]

Stereotypic behavior of circus tigers: Effects of performance

Little is knownabout the effects of performances on the behavior of animals used for entertainment in circuses. The objective of the study was to determine how one or three performances per day influenced the frequency of stereotypic behavior performed by circus tigers (n = 4) in their home cage, shortly before and after performances and […]

The short-term effects of increasing meal frequency on stereotypic behaviour of stabled horses

In this study, we investigated the effect of increasing the number of meals of concentrate (whilst maintaining the same daily intake) on the behaviour of stabled horses with particular reference to stereotypic activities. The study was carried out on a working equestrian yard with stables for up to 50 horses. A pilot study was used […]

Unusual behaviour of captive-raised gibbons: implications for welfare

Unusual behaviours not normally seen in the wild were studied in 52 captive agile (Hylobates agilis albibarbis) and 23 Mu¨ llers gibbons (H. muelleri spp) at three locations within the Kalaweit Gibbon Rehabilitation Project. Unusual behaviours included stereotypic behaviour (SB), human-directed masturbation and posterior presenting. These data were collected over 18 months as part of […]

Longitudinal study of delayed reproductive success in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys)

Concern over a lack of breeding success in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys) prompted a four-part study of gibbon behavior and physiology at the Lincoln Park Zoo. Data were collected to determine the female intermenstrual interval (IMI) and identify periods of peak receptivity. Subsequent behavioral data were gathered during both female menses and […]

Maternal deprivation and the development of stereotypic behaviour

Many farm, laboratory, zoo and companion animals experience some form of maternal deprivation. This is typically via separation from their mothers earlier than would happen in free-living populations, in some cases even while young are still dependent upon milk. Maternal deprivation may also occur in a qualitative way, via inadequate maternal care, perhaps caused by […]

Frustration and perseveration in stereotypic captive animals: Is a taste of enrichment worse than none at all?

Stereotypic behaviours are common in animals in impoverished housing, arising from two complementary processes: (1) thwarted attempts to perform motivated behaviours; (2) forebrain dysfunction impeding normal behavioural inhibition. When enriched animals are moved to impoverished housing, they are sometimes protected against developing stereotypic behaviour, but in other cases become even more stereotypic than animals housed […]