Environmental enrichment for the captive spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)

As part a series of investigations of environmental enrichment methods for zoo animals, two spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus) were observed for 40 h, documenting use of cage space and behaviors, using a detailed ethogram. Baseline data showed concentration of activity into limited areas of the enclosure and expression of a relatively restricted subset of the […]

Using stage-based system dynamics modeling for demographic management of captive populations

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10071.abs Management of captive populations relies on a complex synthesis of genetic and demographic analyses to guide populations toward sustainability. Demographic analyses of captive populations currently utilize age-based matrix projections to predict a population’s trajectory. An alternate approach is to use a stage-based, system dynamics model for captive systems. Such models can more easily […]