Single- or Pair-Housed: Which Is Better for Captive Southern Tamanduas?

The captive environment can limit some important behavioral options for nonhuman animals, which often results in decreased welfare. The companion of a conspecific can be a source of complexity in captivity, but this aspect has received little attention for solitary species. This study investigated the effects of two different housing conditions on the behavior of […]

Behavioral Decisions for Managing Social Distance and Aggression in Captive Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in most zoos attracts high levels of public attention and can play an important role in conservation education. Polar bears in the wild are typically solitary; bears in captivity often house socially. This study reported behavioral evidence on how bears manage this situation and whether proximity leads to aggression. The […]

Isosexual pair housing improves the welfare of young Amazon parrots

It has been suggested that isolation from conspecifics may contribute to the development of abnormal behaviors that are common in captive parrots, including stereotypy, feather plucking, excessive fearfulness and aggression (e.g. [Proceedings of the European Symposium on Bird Diseases, Beerse, Belgium (1987), p. 98; Kleintierpraxis 38 (1993) 511]). Thus, we assessed the influence of isosexual […]

Enrichment and primate centers: Closing the gap between research and practice

A wealth of published research is available to guide environmental enrichment programs for nonhuman primates, but common practice may not consistently correspond to research findings. A 2003 survey to quantify common practice queried individuals overseeing enrichment programs about (a) social, feeding, structural, and manipulable enrichment; (b) human interaction and training; (c) general program administration; (d) […]

The welfare of non-human primates used in research: Report of the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare


Effects of human activity on chimpanzee wounding

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:43.3.CO;2-2 Reducing the frequency and/or severity of aggression and wounding is a major concern of people managing socially housed chimpanzees. One factor that has not been investigated intensively for its effect on captive chimpanzee agonism is the presence of humans. Therefore, we examined an archival database of wounding incidents among 88 adult and adolescent […]

More than numbers matter: The effect of social factors on behaviour and welfare of laboratory rodents and non-human primates☆

With the development of laboratory animal science, increasing attention has been given to the possible influence of housing and husbandry on the behaviour and welfare of laboratory animals as well as on the scientific integrity. With the present paper, we aim to contribute to this knowledge by reviewing existing literature on how social factors influence […]

Corticosterone differences rather than social housing predict performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice

This study examined the effects of social housing manipulations on bodyweight, corticosterone levels, and performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice. Males that adopted a dominant social rank were heavier than those that adopted a subordinate social rank. Dominant males also had lower corticosterone concentrations than the subordinates. However, there was little to suggest […]

Social Housing of Previously Single-caged Macaques: What are the Options and the Risks?

A review of the scientif c literature gives evidence that transferring previously single-caged adult macaques to permanent compatible pair-housing arrangements (isosexual pairs, adult/infant pairs) is associated with less risk of injury and morbidity than transferring them to permanent group-housing arrangements. Juvenile animals can readily be transferred to permanent group-housing situations without undue risks. Safe pairformation […]

Comparing the relative benefits of grooming-contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis

Tactile social contact is the most effective form of environmental enrichment for promoting normal behavior in captive primates. For laboratory macaques housed indoors, pair housing is the most common method for socialization. Pairs can be housed either in full contact (FC), or in protected contact (PC). At Washington National Primate Research Center, PC is provided […]