Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of captive-bolt guns as a killing method without exsanguination for horned and unhorned sheep

The current study aims to make welfare-based recommendations for gun/cartridge combinations and shooting positions that will ensure death of the sheep (horned, unhorned, rams and ewes), without the need for either sticking or pithing. The study examined the pathophysiology of captive-bolt gun (CBG) injuries that result in incomplete concussion leading to death. Behavioural, brainstem and […]