Call Patterns and Basilar Papilla Tuning in Cricket Frogs. I. Differences among Populations and between Sexes

Male cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) produce a broad-band, high frequency advertisement call with a single spectral peak (the dominant frequency). We measured the dominant frequencies of male calls from six populations in central Texas and one from Indiana and compared them to the tuning of basilar papilla afferents in males and females. Averaging over all […]

Variables Influencing the Origins of Diverse Abnormal Behaviors in a Large Sample of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

The developmental origin of abnormal behaviors is generally associated with early rearing environments that lack sufficient physical and sensory stimulation. However, other factors should also be considered. A large sample of captive chimpanzees (128 males and 140 females) was surveyed for the presence or absence of 18 abnormal behaviors. Origin variables included the subject’s source […]

Protective and territorial behavior in captive siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:43.3.CO;2-1 Protective and territorial behavior was observed in 14 heterosexual pairs of adult siamangs in 11 zoos for a total of 1,155 h. The study shows that the quality of protective and territorial behavioral patterns was similar in the wild and in captivity. Under zoo conditions, the behavioral response (except calling) to conspecific and […]

Old, socially housed rhesus monkeys manipulate objects

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430120306.abs Recent research has indicated that old, individually housed monkeys show little interest in novel objects. Yet unanswered is whether this effect is caused primarily by age or housing condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social living in promoting responsiveness to objects. We measured the rates of object […]

Sex differences, or not, in spatial cognition in albino rats: acute stress is the key

Male rats, Rattus norvegicus, typically outperform females in tests of spatial cognition. However, as stress affects cognition differently in the two sexes, performance differences may be an artefact of stress. Rats face at least two sources of stress during an experiment: the test situation (acute) and housing conditions (chronic, e.g. isolation). We used a task […]

Influence of scramble competition for mates upon the spatial ability of male meadow voles

Scramble competition for mates selects for traits that increase an individual’s ability to efficiently locate mates. We tested the hypothesis that scramble competition for mates is the cause of sex differences in spatial ability among meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Specifically, we tested the predictions that males with better spatial ability have larger home ranges, visit […]

Sex differences in weather sensitivity can cause habitat segregation: red deer as an example

Sex differences in habitat use (habitat segregation) are widespread in sexually dimorphic ungulates. A possible cause is that males are more sensitive to weather than females, leading to sex differences in sheltering behaviour (the [`]weather sensitivity hypothesis’). However, this hypothesis has never been tested. We considered the allometric rates of net energy gain during times […]

Behavioral response of 12 ungulate species in captivity to the presence of humans

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430080308.abs Twelve species of captive ungulates were studied to determine behavioral responses to the presence of a zookeeper within the exhibit and in front of the exhibit, with and without zoo visitors present. Significant differences in behavior occurred between species for nearly all behaviors observed. A significantly greater occurrence of vigilance and approach behavior […]

Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis)

Abstract The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression […]

Spatial learning and memory in African mole-rats: The role of sociality and sex

Spatial learning and memory is an important skill for the survival and fitness and may vary between the sexes depending on differences in space use. This is particularly true for animals that explore the subterranean niche as it is associated with high travelling costs. In subterranean rodents the complexity of burrow systems varies with differing […]