Scent marking in wild banded mongooses: 1. Sex-specific scents and overmarking

Overmarking occurs when one individual places its scent mark directly on top of the scent mark of another individual. Although it is almost ubiquitous among terrestrial mammals, we know little about the function of overmarking and detailed field observations are rare. We investigated the chemical composition of scents and patterns of overmarking by wild banded […]

Evaluation of introduction procedures in captive chimpanzees

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:43.3.CO;2-4 Chimpanzee introductions can be stressful and even dangerous for the individuals involved, and different facilities use different approaches to group formation. However, little empirical evidence has been available to evaluate the different factors related to successful or unsuccessful chimpanzee introductions. This study evaluated a variety of factors, such as age, sex, previous experience, […]

Mechanisms underlying responses to inequitable outcomes in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

Several species of nonhuman primates respond negatively to inequitable outcomes, a trait shared with humans. Despite previous research, questions regarding the response to inequity remain. In this study, we replicated the methodology from previous studies to address four questions related to inequity. First, we explored the impact of basic social factors. Second, we addressed whether […]

A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: evidence for a female bias in the Pan lineage

Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, are the most sophisticated tool-users among all nonhuman primates. From an evolutionary perspective, it is therefore puzzling that the tool use behaviour of their closest living primate relative, the bonobo, Pan paniscus, has been described as particularly poor. However, only a small number of bonobo groups have been studied in the wild […]

Sex-specific effects of postnatal testosterone on lateralization in cichlid fish

Lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour in humans and nonhuman animals. To what extent lateralization is, in addition to genetic factors, under the influence of testosterone, which would also explain sex differences in laterality, is the topic of a long-standing debate. This debate is partly hampered by confusion between […]

Sex differences, social context and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata

Despite burgeoning interest in consistent individual differences in behaviour (animal [`]personality’), the influence of social interactions on the performance of different behavioural types is poorly understood. Similarly, the ecological and evolutionary consequences of personality differences in social contexts remain unexplored. Moreover, the possibility that the sexes differ in the degree to which they exhibit personality […]

Predation threat exerts specific effects on rat maternal behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour of male and female offspring

Differences in the rate of maternal behaviours received by rodent offspring are associated with differential programming of molecular and behavioural components of anxiety and stress-related functions. To determine the degree to which maternal behaviours are sensitive to environmental conditions, Long–Evans rat dams were exposed to the odour of a predator (cat) at two different time […]

Personality affects learning performance in difficult tasks in a sex-dependent way

Animals constantly need to cope with changes in their environment. Coping with changes in cues that are associated with the location and abundance of food is essential for being able to adjust behaviourally to a variable environment. The use of cues in decision making requires appropriate levels of attention and learning ability, which may be […]

Play between adult male and infant rhesus monkeys

Play among four pairs of adult male and infant rhesus monkeys is described and compared to mother-infant and peer play. Data were collected while the adult males reared the infants for a period of 7 months in the absence of mothers and peers. Types of play were categorized as solitary, parallel, and interactive. Sex differences […]

Hatching asynchrony and offspring sex influence the subsequent exploratory behaviour of zebra finches

The ecological and evolutionary consequences of variation in behaviour between individuals are well studied, yet the causes of such variation remain poorly understood. Parents can generally exert a great deal of influence on the early life of their offspring, so one possibility is that the mode of parental investment determines subsequent offspring behaviours. In birds, […]