Individual and environmental risk factors associated with fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in zoo-housed Asian and African elephants

A recent large-scale welfare study in North America involving 106 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 131 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants at 64 accredited facilities identified links (i.e., risk factors) between zoo environmental factors and a number of welfare outcomes (stereotypic behavior, ovarian acyclicity, hyperprolactinemia, walking and recumbence, body condition, health status, serum cortisol). For this population […]

Reproductive endocrine patterns in captive female and male red wolves (Canis rufus) assessed by fecal and serum hormone analysis

Abstract Reproductive steroid profiles in female (n=13) and male (n=5) red wolves (Canis rufus) were characterized in fecal samples collected during the breeding season (December—May) and over a 1 year period, respectively. Blood samples from females (n=12) also were collected during the periovulatory period for luteinizing hormone (LH) and steroid analysis. High performance liquid chromatography […]

Using personality ratings and cortisol to characterize individual differences in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

The development of indices to assist in the management of captive animals and assess their well-being is a key priority for those responsible for providing care to animals in captivity, including the zoological community. In particular, the design of indices for use with some of the more charismatic and socially complex animals, such as African […]

Effect of living conditions on biochemical and hematological parameters of the cynomolgus monkey

The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) has been increasingly used in biomedical research. Although living conditions affect behavioral and physiological characteristics in macaques, little data is available on how living conditions influence blood-based parameters in the cynomolgus monkey. We hypothesize that there are significant differences in serum biochemical and hematological parameters in single-caged versus socially housed […]

Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus)

The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called “Brown Skin Disease” (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a […]

The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle

Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 […]