The Use of a Species-Specific Health and Welfare Assessment Tool for the Giant Pacific Octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini

Cephalopods are increasingly viewed as sentient animals that require the same welfare consideration as their vertebrate counterparts. In this study, an observational welfare assessment tool developed by the EU Directive was revised to be species-specific for the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini. This E. dofleini health and welfare assessment tool includes categories assessing E. dofleini […]

Coping with nonrepairable body damage: effects of wing damage on foraging performance in bees

Nonrepairable body damage such as tooth and wing wear commonly occur in animals and can dramatically alter their behaviour. We critically examined the effects of nonrepairable damage in a model system that enabled us to separate the effects of damage from other correlated effects of senescence. Compared to sham controls, honeybees with 20% of their […]

Life history trade-offs are influenced by the diversity, availability and interactions of dietary antioxidants

The expression of most life history traits, such as immunity, growth and the development of sexual signals, is negatively affected by high levels of oxidative stress. Dietary antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress and have therefore been the focus of numerous studies in behavioural and evolutionary ecology in the last few decades. Most of this research […]

The evolution of senescence from a comparative perspective

1. Comparative studies of ageing address the evolutionary lability of the rate of ageing as an indication of potential for, and constraints on, the extension of life span. 2. Experimental studies on ageing have focused on damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other stresses, and on the mechanisms to prevent or repair this […]

Arboreality has allowed for the evolution of increased longevity in mammals

The evolutionary theory of aging predicts that species will experience delayed senescence and increased longevity when rates of extrinsic mortality are reduced. It has long been recognized that birds and bats are characterized by lower rates of extrinsic mortality and greater longevities than nonvolant endotherms, presumably because flight reduces exposure to terrestrial predators, disease, and […]

Consequences of Acute Stress and Cortisol Manipulation on the Physiology, Behavior, and Reproductive Outcome of Female Pacific Salmon on Spawning Grounds

Life-history theory predicts that stress responses should be muted to maximize reproductive fitness. Yet, the relationship between stress and reproduction for semelparous salmon is unusual because successfully spawning individuals have elevated plasma cortisol levels. To tease apart the effects of high baseline cortisol levels and stress-induced elevation of cortisol titers, we determined how varying degrees […]

Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males have been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara’s owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially […]