Observer ratings: Validity and value as a tool for animal welfare research

Ratings by human observers have long been used by animal scientists and veterinarians to assess certain physical traits (e.g. body fat), and can also be applied to the assessment of behaviour and a variety of welfare-relevant variables (e.g. pain responsiveness, alopecia/barbering). Observer ratings offer a myriad of advantages, not just practical (e.g. money-saving) but also […]