A study of cortisol and beta-endorphin levels in stereotypic and normal Thoroughbreds

In recent studies of equine stereotypic behaviour, data on levels of cortisol and beta-endorphin (BE) have been limited and sometimes contradictory. The current research aimed to investigate, in a large number of horses, the relationships between these compounds and equine stereotypic behaviour. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured in stereotypic (n=46) and normal horses […]

Pregnancy diagnosis in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) by salivary hormone analysis

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:13.3.CO;2-L Saliva samples collected from 12 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were analyzed for 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-like and total estrogen immunoreactivity. Five nonpregnant, two conception, and nine pregnancy intervals were monitored. HPLC co-chromatography of immunoreactive free steroid components in saliva indicated that one of three immunoreactive progestin components eluted with 20 alpha-hydroxypreg-4-en-3-one, whereas the single major […]

Measuring salivary analytes from free-ranging monkeys

Studies of large free-ranging mammals have been revolutionized by non-invasive methods for assessing physiology, which usually involve the measurement of fecal or urinary biomarkers. However, such techniques are limited by numerous factors. To expand the range of physiological variables measurable non-invasively from free-ranging primates, we developed techniques for sampling monkey saliva by offering monkeys ropes […]

Responses of slaughter pigs to transport and lairage sounds

The behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to transport and subsequent exposure to slaughterhouse sounds were examined. Forty-one groups of four slaughter pigs were separately loaded onto a lorry and transported for 25 min. Another 43 groups were loaded onto the lorry which then remained stationary for 25 min. Following unloading pigs were moved to […]

Influence of housing and social changes on growth, behaviour and cortisol in piglets at weaning

The present experiment aimed at evaluating the relative effects of environmental and social changes on behaviour, growth and salivary cortisol of piglets at weaning. On Day 0, 26-day old piglets were weaned and allocated to one of four treatments: neither environmental nor social change (C), environmental change (E), social change (S), and both changes (SE). […]

Using personality ratings and cortisol to characterize individual differences in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

The development of indices to assist in the management of captive animals and assess their well-being is a key priority for those responsible for providing care to animals in captivity, including the zoological community. In particular, the design of indices for use with some of the more charismatic and socially complex animals, such as African […]

Noninvasive Saliva Collection for DNA Analyses From Free-Ranging Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana)

Cryptic and endangered fauna, including many primate taxa, pose challenges for noninvasive collection of biomaterials. As a result, application of noninvasive genotyping to primates has been limited to the use of samples such as feces and hair for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA. We present a method for noninvasive collection of saliva from habituated, free-ranging […]

Different ontogenetic patterns of testosterone production reflect divergent male reproductive strategies in chimpanzees and bonobos

Abstract Male reproductive effort is often strongly related to levels of the steroid hormone testosterone. However, little research has examined whether levels of testosterone throughout development might be tied to individual or species differences in the reproductive strategies pursued by adult males. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inter-specific differences in male reproductive strategy are […]

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method development for monitoring stress-related corticosteroids levels in pig saliva

Biochemical response stressors results in an increase of adrenocortical activity. Before knowing the corticosteroid levels in saliva in a stressful situation, baselines salivary levels should be established. A method for simultaneous determination of five corticosteroids was developed, validated and applied to pig saliva at farms. The method employs solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with clean-up extraction […]

No increased stress response in horses on small and electrically fenced paddocks

Regular free movement is an important factor for the wellbeing of horses, reducing the risk of behavioural disorders as well as maintaining bodily functions healthy. Currently animal welfare legislations in several countries require minimal stay times in outdoor enclosures. However, clear legal recommendations for the fence type enclosing or surrounding this area do not exist. […]