Role of delinquent young “orphan” male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilenesberg National Park, South Africa

We describe white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) mortality at Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, focussing on mortality caused by African elephant (Loxodonta africana). We reconstructed records from a range of historical sources, and estimated that up to 49 rhino were killed by elephant. There was confirmed mortality in 1994 and 1996, and based on patterns, we […]

Reproductive problems directly attributable to long-term captivity-asymmetric reproductive aging

Problems attributable to long-term captivity have been identified and are responsible for the difficulties in establishing successful reproduction in captive populations of wildlife, specifically, elephants and rhinoceroses. Historically, non-reproductive periods of 10–15 years in nulliparous female rhinoceroses and elephants have not been considered problematic. New evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to endogenous sex steroids and […]

Serum testosterone in captive male rhinoceros: Effects of season, age, stress, and sociosexual environment

All rhinoceros species are in some degree of endangerment. Understanding the reproductive physiology of rhinoceros species will help in management decisions with both free-ranging and captive populations. In mammalian species studied, testosterone plays a key role in spermatogenesis and libido. Testosterone concentrations, depending on the species, may vary according to age, season, social status, stress […]

Ceratotherium simum

species monograph

The vocal repertoire in Northern white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum cottoni as recorded in the last surviving herd

The Northern White Rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum cottoni is a subspecies of the White Rhino that is almost extinct in the wild. We studied the last reproducing herd kept in Zoo Dvur Kralove to describe its vocal repertoire. The calls produced by eight individuals were recorded and analysed as concerned both sound properties and behavioural contexts […]

Energy and mineral nutrition and water intake in the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20032.abs In the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), two disease complexes with a high incidence—chronic foot problems and uterine leiomyomas—may be linked to excess body weight (BW). In this study, intake and digestion trials were conducted (by means of 7-day weigh-backs, and 5-day total fecal collections, respectively) with 11 Indian rhinoceroses at four zoological […]

Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging Rhinoceros species

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20043.abs Mineral implications in health issues of captive rhinos have received much attention lately. This study was undertaken to establish reference values for the mineral status of rhinos. Serum/plasma samples of free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinos and of captive black, white, Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), and Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinos, as […]

Feed intake, diet utilization, and composition of browses consumed by the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in a North American zoo

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:33.3.CO;2-4 The Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), presently indigenous to the Malay peninsula and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, is faced with extinction. It is estimated that fewer than 400 individuals still exist in the wild. In response, concerted efforts have been made to maintain and breed this species in captivity, and proper diet […]

Reproductive cycle length and pregnancy in the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) as determined by fecal pregnane analysis and observations of mating behavior

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:23.3.CO;2-S Pregnancy and the reproductive cycle were monitored in 13 captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) by measuring progesterone metabolites in fecal extracts and by observing behavior patterns. Fecal hormones were measured using a monoclonal antibody produced against 4-pregnen-11-o1-3,20-dione hemisuccinate:BSA. Several subjects exhibited flat or erratic endocrine profiles, but we found evidence for […]

Urinary steroid evaluations to monitor ovarian function in exotic ungulates: X. Pregnancy diagnosis in Perissodactyla

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430130205.abs Enzymeimmunoassays (EIAs) for estrone conjugates (EC), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG), and C-19 and C-21 progesterone metabolites (C-19/C-21) were used to analyze urine samples from four nondomestic equid species, four tapir species, and two rhinoceros species in an attempt to identify if these assays could be used for diagnosing and monitoring pregnancy. The same urine samples […]