Veterinary concerns of captive duikers

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10046.abs In March 2000, professionals from various duiker-holding institutions conducted a workshop at the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Wildlife Survival Center (WCS/WSC) on St. Catherine’s Island entitled Husbandry, Nutrition, and Health of Captive Duikers. The product of this workshop was a suite of monographs, one of which dealt with veterinary issues and took the form […]

Characterization of reproductive cycles and adrenal activity in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) by fecal hormone analysis

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10001.abs The reproductive cycle of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) was characterized by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis of ovarian fecal steroids (estradiol, progestins) in 29 females over two consecutive breeding seasons. Estrous status was determined by measuring the vulva size and examining the percentage of superficial cells in vaginal lavages. Mean fecal estradiol concentrations […]

Conditioning of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) to blood sampling in a crate with positive reinforcement

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430140307.abs Habituation and positive reinforcement procedures were successfully used for low stress blood sampling of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) at the Denver Zoological Gardens. Four adult females and three offspring were conditioned with a food reward voluntarily to enter a plywood crate for bimonthly blood sampling from the rear leg. Habituated and conditioned, nonsedated nyala […]

A technique for obtaining early life history data in pouched marsupials

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430100111.abs Early developmental and demographic events in many marsupials occur in the mother’s pouch out of animal managers’ sight. Because pouch examination is perceived as being stressful both to animal and handler, the pouch has proven to be a formidable physical and psychological barrier to the study of early life history events in marsupials […]

A method for restraining penguins


Social status differentiates rapid neuroendocrine responses to restraint stress

Male Anolis carolinensis that win aggressive interactions mobilize neuroendocrine responses to social stress more rapidly than defeated lizards. We initially examined temporal patterns of neuroendocrine response to restraint stress in lizards of unknown status, and then investigated whether winning males respond more rapidly to this non-social stressor. Size-matched male pairs interacted to establish social status, […]

Restraint Methods of Laboratory Non-Human Primates: A Critical Review

Published information provides scientific evidence that traditional, involuntary restraint techniques of research non-human primates are intrinsically a source of distress resulting from fear. It has been documented that common methods of enforced restraint result in significantly increased adrenal activity as well as significant changes in a variety of other physiological parameters. There is no scientific […]

Advances in the electrical stunning and bleeding of ostriches

The stunning of ostriches (Struthio camelus) has traditionally been carried out with hand-held tongs whilst birds are held in a restraining area by applying pressure normally from behind by gently pushing on the tail feathers. The area is often a V-shaped structure, high enough that the stunning operator is not kicked. After stunning, the birds […]

Plasma cortisol and noradrenalin concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in the PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

Minimising the effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and noradrenalin (NorA) responses in automated vs manual blood sampling in pigs. A total of 16 pigs (30 kg) were assigned to either: (i) automated […]

Assessment of Stress During Handling and Transport

Fear is a very strong stressor, and the highly variable results of handling and transportation studies are likely to be due to different levels of psychological stress. Psychological stress is fear stress. Some examples are restraint, contact with people, or exposure to novelty. In many different animals, stimulation of the amygdala with an implanted electrode […]