The effect of duration of manual restraint during blood sampling on plasma cortisol levels in calves

Many studies on stress and pain rely, solely or mainly, on plasma cortisol assessment. Confounding factors, such as handling, may cause a release of cortisol making the interpretation of the results difficult. We looked at the influence of duration of restraint on the plasma cortisol levels of one-to-two month old calves. Forty-three calves were divided […]