Zoo Research Guidelines: Project Planning and Behavioural Observations


Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians

The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a […]

Using The Observer for Animal Behavior Research: Stress and emotions in animals

Animals respond to inputs from their inner and outer environment with physiological and behavioral changes. They try to maintain a stable state by reacting to disturbances of the inner and outer world: their Umwelt. Under natural conditions an animal predicts and controls its Umwelt by feeding, moving, resting, socializing, communicating, etc. It has the freedom […]

Schedule-induced and operant mechanisms that influence response variability: A review and implications for future investigations

Response variability, a fundamental characteristic of behavior, may be in some cases an induced effect of reinforcement schedules. Research on schedule-induced response variability has shown that continuous reinforcement results in less variability than intermittent reinforcement schedules. Studies on the effects of intermittency of reinforcement, periodicity of reinforcement, and type of schedule have resulted in mixed […]

The appliance of science to zoo-housed primates

Zoos provide a unique and valuable resource for primate research. Indeed, previous analyses of zoo research have shown that non human primates are favoured as subjects and the study of welfare and conservation rank high on those topics studied [Hardy, D.F., 1996. Current research activities in zoos. In: Kleiman, D.G., Allen, M.E., Thompson, K.V., Lumpkin, […]

The Well-Being of Animals in Zoo and Aquarium Sponsored Research: Putting Best Practices Forward


Twenty-five years of Zoo Biology: a publication analysis

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20177.abs To expand on earlier publication analyses of the journal Zoo Biology, information from 991 articles published within the journal’s first 25 years was compiled and evaluated. Most articles were applied, descriptive accounts that included inferential statistics and/or biological analyses. In addition, most articles focused on captive animals and concentrated on the behavior and […]

Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20215.abs Zoos focus on welfare, conservation, education, and research related to animals they keep. Academic institutions emphasize description, experimentation, modeling, and teaching of general and specific animal biology and behavior through work in both laboratory and field. The considerable overlap in concerns and methods has increased interest in collaborative projects, but there is ample […]

Veterinary concerns of captive duikers

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10046.abs In March 2000, professionals from various duiker-holding institutions conducted a workshop at the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Wildlife Survival Center (WCS/WSC) on St. Catherine’s Island entitled Husbandry, Nutrition, and Health of Captive Duikers. The product of this workshop was a suite of monographs, one of which dealt with veterinary issues and took the form […]

Toward a global perspective on farm animal welfare

During the past half century, the less industrialized countries experienced rapid increases in animal production through both large-scale confinement systems and traditional small-scale systems. These countries now produce the majority of the world’s meat. The regulations and other programs designed to safeguard animal welfare in the European and English-speaking countries may prove ineffective in the […]