Zoo Research Guidelines: Surveys and Questionnaires


Zoo Research Guidelines: Studies of the effects of human visitors on zoo animal behaviour


Zoo Research Guidelines: Project Planning and Behavioural Observations


An Hourly Variation in Zoo Visitor Interest: Measurement and Significance for Animal Welfare Research

A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behavior constantly changing. This is worrisome because previous research linked visitor variables to animal behavioral changes indicative […]

In the deep end: pooling data and other statistical challenges of zoo and aquarium research

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20089.abs Zoo and aquarium research presents many logistic challenges, including extremely small sample sizes and lack of independent data points, which lend themselves to the misuse of statistics. Pseudoreplication and pooling of data are two statistical problems common in research in the biological sciences. Although the prevalence of these and other statistical miscues have […]