Animal Welfare in Conservation Breeding: Applications and Challenges

Animal welfare and conservation breeding have overlapping and compatible goals that are occasionally divergent. Efforts to improve enclosures, provide enriching experiences, and address behavioral and physical needs further the causes of animal welfare in all zoo settings. However, by mitigating stress, increasing behavioral competence, and enhancing reproduction, health, and survival, conservation breeding programs must also […]

The Effect of the Captive Environment on Activity of Captive Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)

This study examined captive cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) behavior across 3 different exhibits: (a) a rainforest (30.5 m in diameter), where tamarins free-ranged with other species; (b) a caged outdoor exhibit (5 m in diameter); and (c) a caged enclosure, with access indoors (6 x 9m) and outdoors (2.5 x 2.5 m). The study observed […]

Directions in reintroduction biology

Reintroductions are attempts to return species to parts of their historical ranges where they were extirpated, and might involve release of either captive-bred or wildcaught individuals. The poor success rate of reintroductions worldwide has led to frequent calls for greater monitoring, and since 1990 there has been an exponential increase in the number of peer […]

Captive breeding and rearing of critically endangered Mauritius fodies Foudia rubra for reintroduction

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20182.abs In-situ captive rearing of endangered passerines for reintroduction has rarely been used as a conservation tool. Nests of Mauritius fodies threatened with predation by introduced mammalian predators were harvested from the wild, and chicks were reared to independence for release onto an offshore, predator-free island. The daily probability of the survival was higher […]

Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20075.abs Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a nonmigratory flock in Florida. This study investigated whether rearing methods (parent-rearing, hand-rearing, or hand-rearing with exercise) of cranes, and behaviors observed in birds either before or shortly after release […]

Suitability of Amphibians and Reptiles for Translocation

Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and […]

Single large or several small? Population fragmentation in the captive management of endangered species

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:63.3.CO;2-V Captive populations of endangered species are typically maintained effectively as single random-mating populations by translocating individuals between institutions. Genetic, disease, and cost considerations, however, suggest that this may not be the optimal management strategy. Genetic theory predicts that a pooled population derived from several small isolated populations will have greater genetic diversity, less […]

Encouraging natural feeding behavior in captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata)

Captive breeding of endangered species is commonly proposed as a means of conserving biodiversity. The suggestion is that captive populations can be built up to provide individuals to reinforce or re-establish wild populations. However, there is evidence to suggest that captive-bred animals lack the skills necessary for survival in their natural habitat. This research was […]

Approaches to the reintroduction of the Bali mynah

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:43.3.CO;2-3 The Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) is an endangered bird endemic to the island of Bali, Indonesia. The wild population of approximately 17 birds is confined to West Bali National Park (Taman Nasional Bali Barat). The species was intensively collected for the bird trade in the 1960s and 1970s, and poaching for the internal […]

Water consumption and watering behavior of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in a semireserve

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:33.3.CO;2-M Water consumption by 12 female Przewalski horses was automatically measured in a semireserve for 17 months. Average daily consumption on a yearly basis was between 2.4 and 8.3 liters, but significant individual variation in water consumption and drinking frequency was recorded throughout the observation period. Individual differences were more clearly detectable during periods […]