Effects of stocking density on the behaviour and growth of farmed red deer hinds

The aim of this experiment was to measure the effects of stocking density on the social behaviour, activity patterns and growth rates of yearling red deer hinds reared at pasture. Twenty individuals were assigned to two groups of 10 in a latin square design. During period 1 (28 days), group 1 was kept at a […]

Sex differences in weather sensitivity can cause habitat segregation: red deer as an example

Sex differences in habitat use (habitat segregation) are widespread in sexually dimorphic ungulates. A possible cause is that males are more sensitive to weather than females, leading to sex differences in sheltering behaviour (the [`]weather sensitivity hypothesis’). However, this hypothesis has never been tested. We considered the allometric rates of net energy gain during times […]

Bivariate versus multivariate analyses of sexual selection in red deer


Relationship between rank and plasma testosterone and cortisol in red deer males (Cervus elaphus)

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a change in the social composition in a group of red deer males on the relationship between their rank and testosterone. A group of twelve adult red deer males (Cervus elaphus) was tested in two social settings. From April 15 to June 9 (Period […]

Physiological Responses of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Conditions Experienced during Road Transport

Waas, J. R., J. R. Ingram and L. R. Matthews. Physiological responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to conditions experienced during road transport. Physiol Behav 61(6) 931-938, 1997.–Remote heart rate and blood sampling devices were attached to transported red deer stags to assess the effects of several road transport parameters on physiological responses associated with […]

Comparison of effects of different methods of culling red deer (Cervus elaphus) by shooting on behaviour and post mortem measurements of blood chemistry, muscle glycogen and carcase characteristics

Methods for culling wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) were compared by observing behaviour and collecting post mortem samples from wild deer shot: (i) by a single stalker during daytime; (ii) by more than one stalker during daytime; (iii) by using a helicopter for the deployment of stalkers and carcase extraction; or (iv) by a single […]

Calf site selection by red deer (Cervus Elaphus) from three contrasting habitats in north-west England: Implications for welfare and management

This study (1978-93) was concerned with calf site selection by red deer from three contrasting areas (two deer parks and one deer farm) of north-west England. It arose from initial (1960s-70s) concern over poor recruitment and the high incidence of ‘abandoned’ calves (at one site), and increasing levels of public disturbance in Lyme Park and […]

Welfare implications of culling red deer (Cervus Elaphus)

In southwestern England, red deer, Cervus elaphus, are culled by rifle (‘stalking’) or by hunting with hounds (‘hunting’). We compare the welfare costs of the two culling methods. Observations of hunts revealed that likely stressors such as close proximity to humans and hounds, active pursuit, noise, obstruction and physical restraint prior to despatch were very […]

Behavioural Responses of Park Red and Fallow Deer to Disturbance and Effects on Population Performance

Within two London parks, Richmond and Bushy, both subject to high public visitor pressure, behavioural observations were undertaken to investigate patterns of habitat use by red and fallow deer populations, and to determine the response of the deer to human disturbance. Potentially disturbing events were considered as: i. people present within a distance of < […]

Effects of Lighting on Heart Rate and Positional Preferences During Confinement in Farmed Red Deer

Two experiments were carried out to determine whether lighting conditions during handling affected heart rate or behaviour in farmed red deer. In Experiment 1 heart rate was measured in 24 individual deer, held under restraint in a mechanical deer crush for two minutes, under either dark (Olux) or light (1500lux) conditions. A stethoscope was used […]