Urinary oxytocin levels in relation to post-conflict affiliations in wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus)

Many animals living in social groups have evolved behaviors to resolve conflicts between group members, behaviors thought crucial for maintaining stable group life. Several hypotheses, based mainly on observational data, aim to explain how post-conflict (PC) affiliations, such as reconciliation and consolation, resolve conflicts by restoring relationships and/or alleviating anxiety. To examine a potential endocrinological […]

Friend or foe: reconciliation between males and females in wild chacma baboons

Male aggression towards females is a common and often costly occurrence in species that live in bisexual groups. But preferential heterosexual relationships are also known to confer numerous fitness advantages to both sexes—making it of interest to explore how aggression is managed among male–female dyads through strategies like reconciliation (i.e. postconflict affiliative reunions between former […]

Function of Notification in Papio hamadryas

Notification is a form of ritualized greeting behavior performed by adult male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). Originally observed in the wild when harem leaders signaled the direction of travel to their followers on daily foraging marches, its true function is unknown. Notification involves the approach of an adult male baboon to another male, the presentation […]

Socially deprived rhesus macaques fail to reconcile: do they not attempt or not accept reconciliation?

Reconciliation, affiliation between opponents after a conflict, is an important means to reduce the detrimental effects of aggression in social primates. Socially deprived (SD) rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, however, do not reconcile, while socially raised animals do. This lack of reconciliation in deprived animals may be caused by (1) a lack of secure and valuable […]

Reconciliation, consolation and postconflict behavioral specificity in chimpanzees

Conflicts of interest arise regularly in the lives of all group-living animals and may escalate into aggressive conflicts. The costs of aggressive escalation can be reduced through peaceful postconflict interactions. This study investigated the postconflict behavior of 22 adult chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. The occurrence of reconciliation, i.e. the postconflict affiliative reunion between conflict opponents, […]

Chimpanzees communicate to two different audiences during aggressive interactions

Conflict and aggressive interactions are common phenomena in group-living animals and vocal behaviour often plays an important role in determining their outcomes. In some species, vocal signals seem to provide bystanders with information about the nature of an ongoing aggressive interaction, which can be beneficial for the victims. For example, in chimpanzees and some other […]

Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior

Coalitions among males during within group conflicts have a strong influence on the competitive and social environment within social groups. To evaluate possible variation in the occurrence of such coalitions in our closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, we compared male aggression and coalitionary behavior in two natural communities, one of each species, with a similar […]