Variables Influencing the Origins of Diverse Abnormal Behaviors in a Large Sample of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

The developmental origin of abnormal behaviors is generally associated with early rearing environments that lack sufficient physical and sensory stimulation. However, other factors should also be considered. A large sample of captive chimpanzees (128 males and 140 females) was surveyed for the presence or absence of 18 abnormal behaviors. Origin variables included the subject’s source […]

The effect of different degrees of ‘positive’ human-animal interaction during rearing on the welfare and subsequent production of commercial dairy heifers

A 3-year study tested the hypotheses that brushing each heifer for 5 min per week in the weeks preceding calving (long term positive treatment: PT) while the heifers were unrestrained, is sufficient to improve subsequent parlour behaviour and production, and this could be influenced by the extent of the PT. Four intakes of commercial dairy heifers […]

Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430130507.abs Although there have been few demonstrations of a direct empirical relationship between environmental enrichment and reproductive success in captive animals, indirect and anecdotal evidence indicates the importance of physical and temporal complexity for reproduction. We discuss three major mechanisms through which environmental enrichment that specifically increases the complexity of an animal’s surroundings may […]

Hens are motivated to dustbathe in peat irrespective of being reared with or without a suitable dustbathing substrate

Birds usually dustbathe in litter, but in the absence of this they sham dustbathe. The question addressed in this study was whether laying hens, Gallus gallus domesticus reared without litter and used to performing sham dustbathing consider this to be [`]real’ dustbathing and are satisfied with this or, if given the opportunity, would choose to […]

The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial flocks of laying hens

Feather pecking and cannibalism remain serious problems when laying hens are intensely farmed, but there is not much data on the true prevalence of feather pecking under commercial conditions. A recent epidemiological survey estimated it to be 37.5%. To verify this value we collected data on the occurrence of feather pecking by means of direct […]

Influence of prior exposure to wood shavings on feather pecking, dustbathing and foraging in adult laying hens

It has been proposed that chicks acquire substrate preferences during an early ‘sensitive’ period. If a suitable substrate is absent during this period birds may develop alternative preferences for pecking at feathers. The aim of this study was to examine whether early substrate exposure has durable effects on the subsequent behaviour of adult hens. The […]

A note on light preference in layer pullets reared in incandescent or natural light

The effect of early exposure of pullets to natural light may have an effect on the later preference for light type and on the behaviour of birds after being transferred to laying facilities. Our aim was to study the light-type preference of 14-week pullets reared in either incandescent or natural light. From day-old, a total […]

Successful mother- and group-rearing of a newborn capuchin monkey (Cebus Capucinus) following emergency major surgery

During capture, in order to separate him from a possessive adult female and return him to his mother, a newborn male in a laboratory group of Cebus Capucinus monkeys was found to have a seriously infected compound fracture of the humerus associated with a deep and extensive slash wound. Amputation of the affected limb was […]

Differential effect of early enrichment and deprivation on learning in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

Data are presented to both support and extend research findings concerning the effects of early experience on nonhuman primate learning ability. Enriched monkeys tested in their home living environment performed more proficiently than monkeys separated from their living environments and tested in an adjoining room. Further, monkeys reared in enriched environments were superior to partially […]

The effects of rearing conditions on grooming and play behaviour in captive chimpanzees

The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy and juvenescence on adolescent and adult chimpanzee behaviour were studied. The aim was to provide an insight into the social development of the species and to investigate human influence on this process. Forty-three adolescent and adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), from a variety of backgrounds, were studied […]