Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in carnivores by fecal glucocorticoid analyses

Measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has become an accepted method for the noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was suitable for monitoring adrenocortical activity in a variety of carnivore species. Performance of the cortisol EIA was gauged by comparison to […]

A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20221.abs Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446–11450). […]

Non-invasive fecal hormone analysis and behavioral observations for monitoring stress responses in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20055.abs Non-invasive techniques for monitoring the stress response in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were investigated. Fecal samples for cortisol measurement and concurrent behavioral data were collected from six individuals in a socially housed gorilla group (one adult male, three adult females and their three offspring) over a 7-month period. Despite inter-individual […]

Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20033.abs We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline […]

Reproductive cycle length and pregnancy in the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) as determined by fecal pregnane analysis and observations of mating behavior

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:23.3.CO;2-S Pregnancy and the reproductive cycle were monitored in 13 captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) by measuring progesterone metabolites in fecal extracts and by observing behavior patterns. Fecal hormones were measured using a monoclonal antibody produced against 4-pregnen-11-o1-3,20-dione hemisuccinate:BSA. Several subjects exhibited flat or erratic endocrine profiles, but we found evidence for […]

Urinary oxytocin as a noninvasive biomarker of positive emotion in dogs

A reliable assay based on physiological parameters that does not require subjective input from the owners is required to assess positive emotions in dogs. In addition, when viewed from an animal welfare perspective, physiological parameters should be collected in a noninvasive manner. Oxytocin (OT) is a biomarker that may be associated with a calm, relaxed […]

Monitoring the gestation period of rescued Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) with progesterone radioimmunoassay

Eight species of pangolin have been identified in the world. However, understanding of pangolin reproductive biology has been limited to fragmentary records. In this study, the concentration of serum progesterone in three pregnant and two nonpregnant rescued female Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) was monitored using a commercial progesterone radioimmunoassay kit. During gestation, the serum […]

Validation of a Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Assay to Assess Stress in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a noninvasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to […]

Different ontogenetic patterns of testosterone production reflect divergent male reproductive strategies in chimpanzees and bonobos

Abstract Male reproductive effort is often strongly related to levels of the steroid hormone testosterone. However, little research has examined whether levels of testosterone throughout development might be tied to individual or species differences in the reproductive strategies pursued by adult males. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inter-specific differences in male reproductive strategy are […]