An exploratory analysis of the suitability of diets fed to a flightless insectivore, the North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), in New Zealand

Abstract The ingredients and the macro- and micro-nutrient contents of diets that are fed to captive kiwi at seven New Zealand holding facilities were subject to analysis. The nutrient compositions were compared across facilities and with an estimate of the nutrient composition of the diets of wild kiwi based on the intake of various dietary […]

Nutrient composition of plants consumed by black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, in the Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20267.abs The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations […]

Taurine and zoo felids: considerations of dietary and biological tissue concentrations

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20158.abs Taurine (TAU) is an essential amino acid required in the diets of Felidae at concentrations ranging between 0.04 and 0.2% on a dry matter (DM) basis (in purified, highly digestible diets, and canned diets, respectively). Although the domestic cat seems to be an appropriate physiologic model for zoo felids, it is sometimes difficult […]

Estimate of chitin in raw whole insects

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20123.abs Insects contain significant amounts of fiber as measured by crude fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF) or neutral detergent fiber (NDF). It has always been assumed that the fiber in insects represents chitin based on the structural similarity between cellulose and chitin and the fact that the ADF fraction from insects contains nitrogen. In […]

Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in apparently healthy, free-ranging southern giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffe)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20114.abs This pilot project began establishing a nutritional profile for free-ranging giraffe. The results will be used as a tool to begin assessing the nutritional status of captive giraffe. In October 2004 serum samples were collected opportunistically from seven adult and 17 sub-adult giraffe being anesthetized for different studies. Seventeen animals were from Double […]

Intake, utilization, and composition of browses consumed by the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harissoni) in captivity in Sabah, Malaysia

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20107.abs The significant threats to the fewer than 30 wild Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni, the Bornean sub-species of the Sumatran rhinoceros, are obvious and include poaching, habitat loss, and environmental changes. Subtle effects on population survival, however, include nutritional or other diseases, which affect morbidity and reproductive success. To address these issues and focus on […]

Composition of captive giant panda milk

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20056.abs Eleven milk samples were collected from three female giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) during 23 days after delivery. Concentrations of crude protein (CP), lactose (Lac), and three vitamins (VA, VD, VE) in these samples were tested. Concentration of CP, Lac, VA, VD, and VE of these samples in wet basis averaged 6.77±0.78%, 3.23±0.54%, 0.073±0.043 […]

Relationships among nutrition and reproduction and relevance for wild animals

This review discusses aspects of feeding ecology, nutrition, and dietary husbandry that are particularly relevant to reproductive success in wild animals. Emphasis has been placed on recently published literature. Special attention has been given to requirements for energy and protein and the unique roles of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, […]

Feed intake and digestion in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus): Consequences for dietary management

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430130410.abs Captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) often consume diets high in prey and meat items even though they are omnivorous in the wild. These soft, high protein diets may exacerbate conditions of gingivitis and cystinuria in this species. Feed intakes were monitored in wolves provided with prey and meat-based diets (3 periods) and subsequently […]

The feeding of rhinoceros in captivity

Rhinoceros are large herbivores that are adapted for gaining energy from the fermentation of fibrous plant material. In this paper we address issues of oversupplementation of energy (leading to obesity) and minerals (particularly iron in Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis), outline a diet design that relies on forage as the staple component with a reduction in […]