Reproductive endocrine monitoring of elephants: An essential tool for assisting captive management

Considerable information now is available about the basic reproductive biology of elephants, especially females. However, as important as this knowledge is, it no longer is enough to simply compile it into a database. The potential exists for using endocrine monitoring techniques to solve real problems. This review summarizes our current knowledge of elephant endocrinology and […]

Body weight as an effective tool for determination of onset of puberty in captive female Nile hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibious)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20076.abs Profiles of fecal progestogens and body weight from the early juvenile to the peri-pubertal period are presented for eight captive female Nile hippopotami housed at Disney’s Animal Kingdom in Florida. Average growth rate in juveniles was 0.85±0.03 kg/day (r2=0.913). Progestogen elevations were detectable as early as 16.8 months of age, and elevations indicative […]

Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Abstract Fecal samples were collected for 14–26 months from three male and six female Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) to examine gonadal steroidogenic activity in response to changes in photoperiod and treatment with exogenous gonadotropins. Females exhibited a seasonal anestrus from May–December, excreting consistently low concentrations of fecal estrogens (overall mean, 50.2±8.5 ng/g). During the breeding […]

Comparative analysis of gonadal and adrenal activity in the black and white rhinoceros in North America by noninvasive endocrine monitoring

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10028.abs Patterns of fecal reproductive steroid metabolites and adrenal corticoids were characterized for 12- to 24-month periods in black (n = 10 male, 16 female) and white (n = 6 male, 13 female) rhinoceroses at 14 institutions. All black rhinoceros females exhibited at least some ovarian cyclicity on the basis of fecal progestogen analysis […]

A versatile enzyme immunoassay for the determination of progestogens in feces and serum

Abstract The ability of zoos to monitor the reproductive status of their animals can vastly improve the effectiveness of husbandry/management practices, and noninvasive methods such as fecal steroid analysis are the easiest to apply in a zoo setting. Furthermore, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is preferred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) as the method of quantifying hormones because EIAs […]

Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1010.abs Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing […]

Male mating behaviour in relation to female sexual swellings, socio-sexual behaviour and hormonal changes in wild Barbary macaques

Abstract In many cercopithecine primates females display probabilistic cues of fertility to indicate the periovulatory period to males. These cues may include female behaviour, acoustic signals, and morphological signs such as the anogenital swelling. However, the extent to which males can utilise this information varies between species. We describe male sexual behaviour in relation to […]