Prolonged ovarian acyclicity is associated with a higher likelihood of developing hyperprolactinemia in zoo female African elephants

Hyperprolactinemia is a common disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and a cause of ovarian dysfunction in women. Currently, over half of non-cycling African elephant females in North America also are hyperprolactinemic, suggesting a similar link between these two conditions may exist. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between acyclicity and prolactin […]

Fecal steroid analysis of female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) reproductive condition and the impact of endocrine status on daily time budgets

Gestation and lactation can impose substantial energetic costs on female mammals. We developed a non-invasive means to determine reproductive condition in female giraffe using fecal steroid analysis. Giraffe may be especially challenged during their reproductive cycle because of two characteristics: they are impregnated while lactating and they do not breed seasonally. We studied the social […]

Estrous state influences on investigative, aggressive, and tail flicking behavior in captive female Asian elephants

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20181.abs Females of species that live in matrilineal hierarchies may compete for temporally limited resources, yet maintain social harmony to facilitate cohesion. The relative degree of aggressive and nonaggressive interactions may depend on the reproductive condition of sender and receiver. Individuals can benefit by clearly signaling and detecting reproductive condition. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) […]

Ovarian cycle of the captive formosan gem-faced civets (Paguma larvata taivana)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20115.abs Formosan gem-faced civets are classified to be endemic sub-species of Paguma larvata in Taiwan. Little about their reproductive physiology has been reported. This study was designed to characterize the ovarian activity throughout the year and define ovarian cycle length and the lengths of its component phases. Serum samples were collected for enzyme immunoassay […]

Assessment of reproductive status and ovulation in female brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) using fecal steroids and ovarian follicle size

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20074.abs Despite being listed as endangered on the IUCN (World Conservation Union) red list [BirdLife International 2005], and intense conservation efforts on its behalf, little is known about the reproductive physiology of the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). This study therefore was undertaken to describe ovarian function in brown kiwi using noninvasive methods that can […]

Anuran gender identification by fecal steroid analysis

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20077.abs This study tested the hypothesis that steroid hormone metabolites can be measured in anuran feces and their concentrations used to identify the sex of adults. Fecal samples from American toads, Bufo americanus, and boreal toads, B. boreas boreas, were extracted using ethyl acetate, and the concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone metabolites were […]

Reproduction, Growth and Development in Captive Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20037.abs Recent success propagating captive beluga has resulted from combined efforts by North American zoos and aquariums to manage disparate collections as a single population. This success has provided a tremendous opportunity to increase our understanding of beluga reproductive biology. Blood samples were collected on a weekly to biweekly basis from 23 female and […]

Endocrine and ultrasonographic characterization of a successful pregnancy in a Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) supplemented with a synthetic progestin

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10131.abs A Sumatran rhinoceros with a history of early pregnancy loss was supplemented with a synthetic progestin, altrenogest (Regu-Mate®), and delivered a healthy, full-term calf 475 days after mating. Serum hormone concentrations were measured throughout gestation, and ultrasonography was used to monitor embryo/fetal growth and viability. The embryonic vesicle growth curve was characterized by […]

Lactation-associated infertility in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) during the breeding season

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10073.abs To investigate the endocrine factors in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) responsible for the suppression of the estrous cycle during the first reproductive season after delivery (150–360 days postpartum), peripheral blood was taken to measure plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, estradiol-17β, immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin, and cortisol. The results demonstrated […]

Efficacy of levonorgestrel when administered as an irradiated, slow-release injectable matrix for feline contraception

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1039.abs Reliable and safe methods of reversible contraception are needed for use in zoo felids. The efficacy of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a contraceptive, when delivered as a cesium-irradiated, slow-release, injectable matrix, was tested in domestic cats as a model for exotic cats. An increase (P = 0.0017) in body weight was observed in treated […]