Reproductive endocrine monitoring of elephants: An essential tool for assisting captive management

Considerable information now is available about the basic reproductive biology of elephants, especially females. However, as important as this knowledge is, it no longer is enough to simply compile it into a database. The potential exists for using endocrine monitoring techniques to solve real problems. This review summarizes our current knowledge of elephant endocrinology and […]

Longitudinal study of delayed reproductive success in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys)

Concern over a lack of breeding success in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys) prompted a four-part study of gibbon behavior and physiology at the Lincoln Park Zoo. Data were collected to determine the female intermenstrual interval (IMI) and identify periods of peak receptivity. Subsequent behavioral data were gathered during both female menses and […]

Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E1C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20192.abs The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E1C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and […]

Reproductive cycles and contraception of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate during the breeding season

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20136.abs Contraception is a critical component of population management for lemurs, but concerns about potential deleterious effects of continuous, long-term treatment with synthetic progestins such as the widely used melengestrol acetate implant led us to evaluate seasonal contraception with injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, Upjohn Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI) to limit the duration of […]

Predicting reproduction in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20020.abs The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a threatened species. It is also a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Unfortunately, sea otters reproduce successfully in only a small number of facilities. Pregnancies vary in duration, and are thought to involve a delayed implantation of about 2–3 months, followed by an […]

Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park

For decades, attempts to breed elephants using artificial insemination (AI) have failed despite considerable efforts and the use of various approaches. However, recent advances in equipment technology and endocrine-monitoring techniques have resulted in 12 elephants conceiving by AI within a 4-year period (1998–2002). The successful AI technique employs a unique endoscope-guided catheter and transrectal ultrasound […]

Changes in urinary concentrations of total estrogen and pregnanediol in a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from 1991 to 2000

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10105.abs Total estrogen and pregnanediol concentrations in urine samples from one female giant panda were measured from 1991–2000. This female experienced her first estrus at the age of 5 years 3 months in 1991. From 1992 on, estrous behavior was observed every year between January and June, and the peak values of total estrogen […]

Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Abstract Fecal samples were collected for 14–26 months from three male and six female Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) to examine gonadal steroidogenic activity in response to changes in photoperiod and treatment with exogenous gonadotropins. Females exhibited a seasonal anestrus from May–December, excreting consistently low concentrations of fecal estrogens (overall mean, 50.2±8.5 ng/g). During the breeding […]

Comparative analysis of gonadal and adrenal activity in the black and white rhinoceros in North America by noninvasive endocrine monitoring

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10028.abs Patterns of fecal reproductive steroid metabolites and adrenal corticoids were characterized for 12- to 24-month periods in black (n = 10 male, 16 female) and white (n = 6 male, 13 female) rhinoceroses at 14 institutions. All black rhinoceros females exhibited at least some ovarian cyclicity on the basis of fecal progestogen analysis […]

Characterization of reproductive cycles and adrenal activity in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) by fecal hormone analysis

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10001.abs The reproductive cycle of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) was characterized by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis of ovarian fecal steroids (estradiol, progestins) in 29 females over two consecutive breeding seasons. Estrous status was determined by measuring the vulva size and examining the percentage of superficial cells in vaginal lavages. Mean fecal estradiol concentrations […]