Sex differences in the effects of two stress paradigms on dopaminergic neurotransmission

Sex differences in behavioral and neurobiological responses to stress are considered to modulate the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In the present study, we compared dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in response to two different stress paradigms, the Forced Swim Test (FST) and the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). Male and female rats were […]

The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease

Why do we get the stress-related diseases we do? Why do some people have flare ups of autoimmune disease, whereas others suffer from melancholic depression during a stressful period in their life? In the present review possible explanations will be given by using different levels of analysis. First, we explain in evolutionary terms why different […]

Reproductive experience does not persistently alter prefrontal cortical-dependent learning but does alter strategy use dependent on estrous phase

Reproductive experiences in females comprise substantial hormonal and experiential changes and can exert long lasting changes in cognitive function, stress physiology, and brain plasticity. The goal of this research was to determine whether prior reproductive experience could alter a prefrontal–cortical dependent form of learning (strategy set shifting) in an operant box. In this study, female […]

Mechanisms by which neonatal testosterone exposure mediates sex differences in impulsivity in prepubertal rats

Neonatal testosterone, either acting directly or through its conversion to estradiol, can exert organizational effects on the brain and behavior. The goal of the current study was to examine sex differences and determine the role of neonatal testosterone on prefrontal cortex-dependent impulsive choice behavior in prepubertal rats. Male and female prepubertal rats were tested on […]

Sex differences and estrous cycle effects on foreground contextual fear conditioning