Evidence of high individual variability in seed management by scatter-hoarding rodents: does ‘personality’ matter?

The predation and dispersal of seeds by scatter-hoarding animals is one of the most studied processes in the context of animal–plant interactions. Seed management by these animals has been traditionally approached at the population level: the patterns documented in the field are assumed to be similar for all individuals of the population and the variability […]

Structurally complex habitat and sensory adaptations mediate the behavioural responses of a desert rodent to an indirect cue for increased predation risk

We studied the foraging behaviour of a rocky desert rodent, the common spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), to gain insight into how structural complexity of habitat influences responses to an indirect cue for the level of predation risk. We used artificial food patches to compare the foraging response of free-ranging common spiny mice in a habitat […]

Activity patterns of predator and prey: a simultaneous study of GPS-collared wolves and moose

We studied the simultaneous activity patterns of a breeding wolf, Canis lupus, pair and five adult moose, Alces alces, cows from April to November 2004 in a wolf territory in southeastern Norway. All study animals were GPS collared, and we used a total of 8297 fixes to analyse their temporal activity patterns. We examined the […]

Evaluation of predation risk by a caterpillar using substrate-borne vibrations

Assessment of predation risk and appropriate defensive responses are critical for most organisms. Prey individuals must distinguish between the cues produced by abiotic factors, competitors and predators, and respond appropriately. We determined whether larvae of Semiothisa aemulataria (Geometridae), which defend themselves from invertebrate predators by hanging on a silk thread, can detect predator threats and […]

Identifying Sykes’ monkeys’, Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarchus, axes of fear through patch use

We used experimental food patches to test how habitat factors affect predation risk for Sykes’ monkeys. We created food patches to reveal monkeys’ foraging cost of predation. We measured the monkeys’ variation in predation costs with patches stratified by height and arrayed horizontally. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches with the […]

Artificial illumination reduces bait-take by small rainforest mammals

Small mammals often moderate their foraging behaviour in response to cues indicating a high local predation risk. We assessed the ability of cues associated with a high predation risk to reduce the consumption of bait by non-target small mammal species in a tropical rainforest, without inhibiting bait-take by feral pigs (Sus scrofa). The illumination of […]

Non-lethal effects of predators on body growth and health state of juvenile lizards, Psammdromus algirus

Predation risk does not necessarily increase predation rates because prey may be able to behave differentially to cope with higher predation risk. However, antipredatory behaviors may be costly, leading to negative, although non-lethal, effects of predators on prey. We examined in outdoor enclosures whether an experimental increase in predation pressure, which did not increase direct […]

Shorebird incubation behaviour and its influence on the risk of nest predation

Both nest survival and incubation behaviour are highly variable among shorebirds (Charadrii), and we tested whether more conspicuous incubation behaviour increased the risk of nest predation. During 2000–2006, we monitored nest fate at 901 shorebird nests at three study sites across the circumpolar Arctic. Using miniature video recorders and nest temperature sensors, we obtained 782 […]

Stress responsiveness, age and body condition interactively affect flight initiation distance in breeding female eiders

Predation may drive differential selection among personality types, but the mechanism linking personality with predation risk is poorly understood. One such mechanism may be provided by stress hormones (corticosterone in birds), which are linked to boldness towards predators. However, because of feedbacks between boldness and future fitness expectations, the relationship between boldness and stress physiology […]

Time in captivity, individual differences and foraging behaviour in wild-caught Chaffinches

Wild-caught animals are often given a settling in period before experimental trials are initiated. We used wild-caught chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to investigate (a) the effect of settling in period duration on the likelihood that chaffinches foraged during experimental trials and (b) whether settling in period duration influenced measures of foraging and vigilance behaviour recorded from […]