Animal welfare: Concepts and measurement

The term “welfare” refers to the state of an individual in relation to its environment, and this can be measured. Both failure to cope with the environment and difficulty in coping are indicators of poor welfare. Suffering and poor welfare often occur together, but welfare can be poor without suffering and welfare should not be […]

Indicators of poor welfare


Assessing welfare and suffering

Poor welfare occurs in situations in which the effects on the animal are adverse in that there is reduced fitness or clear indications that fitness will be reduced, ie. the animal is stressed, and in situations where the individual has difficulty in coping with its environment. Welfare is improved by increased control over the environment. […]