Heart rate modulation by social contexts in greylag geese (Anser anser)

Physical activity is generally considered as most relevant for modulating heart rate (HR). The authors show here that HR is not only modulated by physical activity but even more by social contexts. HR modulation in three free-ranging, socially embedded, male greylag geese fitted with implanted radiotransmitters was investigated. Measured HR ranged from 40 beats per […]

Subtle Physical Activity poses a Challenge to the study of heart rate.

In nonhuman primates, our understanding of the effect of physical activity upon heart rate, particularly activity involving only slight, nonlocomotor movements, is poor. However, before inferring that other factors affect an animal’s heart rate, the effect of physical activity upon heart rate must be considered. This study describes this effect in five adult female and […]

Restricted vs. unrestricted wheel running in mice: Effects on brain, behavior and endocannabinoids

Beneficial effects of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis, morphology and hippocampal-dependent behavior have widely been studied in rodents, but also serious side effects and similarities to stereotypy have been reported. Some mouse strains run excessively when equipped with running wheels, complicating the comparability to human exercise regimes. Here, we investigated how exercise restriction to […]

Development of physical activity levels in laying hens in three-dimensional aviaries

Levels of physical activity are known to be associated with a number of health and welfare parameters in laying hens, such as stronger bones. Despite this, we presently lack insight into the development of physical activity throughout the life of the laying hen. To close this knowledge gap, we measured physical activity levels of four […]