Environmental and physiological determinants of huddling behavior of molting female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina)

While endotherms can rely on their insulation to reduce heat loss to adapt to cold environments, renewing of fur during molt impairs insulation while they have to perfuse the periphery to support epidermal tissues. The southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina undertakes an annual catastrophic molt while fasting on land in a wet, windy and cold […]

Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus)

Abstract Zoos and aquariums have been incorporating environmental enrichment into their animal care programs for the past 30 years to increase mental stimulation and promote natural behaviors. However, most attempts to document the effects of enrichment on animal behavior have focused on terrestrial mammals. Staff at the National Aquarium in Baltimore conducted an investigation of […]

Phenomenal advanced age of pupping in a captive pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi)

To better define the life history in the captive environment, we describe the reproductive history and advanced age of pupping of a female Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) at the Henry Vilas Zoo (HVZ) in Madison, Wisconsin. This female gave birth to a viable pup on May 16, 2012, at the age of 42 […]