Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:33.3.CO;2-Z The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of penning and chaining on circus elephant behavior. The behaviors of 10 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were videotaped for at least 24 hours at each of six performance locations. At four of these locations, the elephants were […]